RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS <p>The Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia is a <strong>free of charge</strong> <strong>OPEN ACCESS </strong>peer reviewed journal.</p> <p>RIPS publishes original contributions on all aspects of palaeontology and stratigraphy.</p> <p>All papers are written in English and are reviewed by international experts.</p> <p>The journal is currently indexed and abstracted by AGI, ISI, Current Contents, Georef, Geological Abstract and SciSearch.</p> <p><strong>Web of Science Journal Citation Reports 2018</strong>: &nbsp;Journal Impact Factor <strong>1.232</strong>, 5-Year Impact Factor&nbsp;<strong>1.270</strong>, Total Cites&nbsp;<strong>1069</strong></p> <p><strong>Scopus CiteScore 2018</strong>:&nbsp;<strong>1.53</strong></p> <p><strong>OPEN ACCESS POLICY</strong>: RIPS is published under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives Licence 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</a></p> <p>On Facebook:&nbsp;<a href="https://www.facebook.com/RIPS15/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.facebook.com/RIPS15/</a></p> <p>On Twitter:&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/rivistapaleo" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://twitter.com/rivistapaleo</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Università degli Studi di Milano en-US RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA 0035-6883 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licenza Creative Commons" /></a><br />Rivista italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia di <a href="/index.php/RIPS" rel="cc:attributionURL">http://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS</a> è distribuito con Licenza <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale</a>.</p><p>The journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</p> A PUTATIVE JUVENILE SPECIMEN OF <em>EUSAUROSPHARGIS DALSASSOI</em> FROM THE ANISIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC) OF PIZ DA PERES (DOLOMITES, NORTHERN ITALY) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13222 <p>The partial skeleton of a small tetrapod, collected from the lower Buchenstein Formation (uppermost Illyrian, Anisian Middle Triassic) of Piz da Peres (Northern Dolomites, Italy) is described. Incomplete ossification of some bones indicate that the specimen is a juvenile. Its absolute size and proportions, along with several skeletal structures show striking similarities with a juvenile specimen of <em>Eusaurosphargis dalsassoi</em> from the slightly younger Prosanto Formation (Switzerland), a taxon known also from the Anisian/Ladinian Besano Formation (Italy and Switzerland). The finding may suggest that during the middle-late Anisian the basins of the Northern Dolomites, of the Besano Formation and Prosanto Formation shared not only several taxa of fishes but also the emerged lands nearby had a similar reptilian fauna.</p> SILVIO RENESTO EVELYN KUSTATSCHER PIERO GIANOLLA Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13222 UPPER CENOMANIAN FISHES FROM THE BONARELLI LEVEL (OAE2) OF NORTHEASTERN ITALY https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13224 <p>The Bonarelli Level (BL) is a radiolarian-ichthyolithic, organic-rich marker bed that was deposited close to the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary (CTB) representing the sedimentary expression of the global Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2). In northeastern Italy this horizon yielded fossil remains documenting a rather diverse ichthyofauna. The assemblage was studied by Sorbini in 1976 based on material from a single locality, Cinto Euganeo. Subsequently, other localities yielding fish remains have been discovered. Our revision also includes fish remains from three new fish-bearing localities, the Carcoselle Quarry, the Valdagno-Schio tunnel and Quero other than those from Bomba Quarry near Cinto Eugeneo. At least 28 taxa were identified, including nine previously not reported from the Bonarelli Level, namely: <em>Scapanorhynchus</em> <em>raphiodon</em>, <em>Cretalamna</em> <em>appendiculata</em>, <em>Archaeolamna</em> <em>kopingensis</em>, ‘<em>Nursallia</em>’ <em>tethysensis</em>, <em>Belonostomus </em>sp., <em>Dixonanogmius dalmatius</em>, ‘<em>Protosphyraena</em>’ <em>stebbingi</em> and the beryciform <em>Hoplopteryx</em> sp. The overall assemblage mostly consists of crossognathiforms, tselfatiiforms and aulopiforms. A comparison of the taxonomic diversity with coeval assemblages evidences a general similarity with nearby western Tethyan fish assemblages and especially with the Jebel Tselfat ichthyofauna, although some of the taxa are exclusively shared with the assemblages of the boreal realm (English Chalk, Westphalia and Saxony). However, additional information would be necessary to more properly define the main global ichthyogeographic patterns during the Cenomanian.</p> JACOPO AMALFITANO LUCA GIUSBERTI ELIANA FORNACIARI GIORGIO CARNEVALE Copyright (c) 2020-04-03 2020-04-03 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13224 CALLOVIAN TO OXFORDIAN BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA FROM LER DOME, KUTCH BASIN (GUJARAT, INDIA): SYSTEMATIC, ECOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL RECONSTRUCTION https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13276 <p>Analysis of the foraminiferal assemblages of the Chari Formation (Middle-Upper Jurassic transition) exposed at Ler Dome, Kutch Basin (India) allows one to interpret the incidence of different environmental parameters, especially the effect of sea-level changes in this group of microorganisms. The overall deposition of the Chari Formation took place in an open marine environment in the middle to outer shelf, having normal salinity and well-oxygenated bottom waters according to the lithofacies and the composition of the foraminiferal and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Changes in the diversity, abundance of foraminifera, and proportion of specialist forms were associated mainly with the availability of labile organic matter on the sea floor. The changes in trophic resources were associated with fluctuations in the type of sedimentation, which ranges from carbonates to siltstones and sandstones. During the regressive phase, a relatively high input of food resources, probably phytodetritus, was associated with siliciclastic sedimentation and commonly related with increased abundance and diversity of foraminifera, including specialist forms. During the transgressive phase, the influx of food resources from emerged areas and shallow environments decreased; sedimentation was more calcareous, with an accumulation of ammonoid shells that indicates hemipelagic conditions. The decrease in food resources for benthic foraminifera is reflected by a lesser diversity and abundance, and lower proportions of specialist foraminifera.</p> SYED MD. WASIM MATIAS REOLID ABU TALIB SHABBER HABIB ALVI Copyright (c) 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13276 PALYNOLOGY AND CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF MIDDLE TRIASSIC SUCCESSIONS IN NORTHERN SWITZERLAND (WEIACH, BENKEN, LEUGGERN) AND SOUTHERN GERMANY (WEIZEN, FREUDENSTADT) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13421 <p>New Anisian to Ladinian palynology, palynofacies and stable carbon isotope records are reported for the Middle Triassic from deep Swiss wells (Weiach, Benken, Leuggern), well B3/13 (Weizen, S-Germany) and the type area of the Freudenstadt Formation in southern Germany.</p> <p>A wide spectrum of moderately to well-preserved palynomorphs represent a high Middle Triassic plant diversity. Based on the distribution of diverse spore-pollen assemblages five Anisian Palynozones (A–E) and two Ladinian ones (F, G) are differentiated. Throughout these Palynozones the occurrence of spores and pollen, assigned to plant groups so far known only from the Palaeozoic, shed a new light on the evolution of plant assemblages during the Triassic. The comparison of Palynozones A–G with palynostratigraphic schemes from the central part of the Germanic Basin and from the Tethyan realm demonstrate the regional variability of marker species ranges – especially for the Anisian.</p> <p>n agreement with the lithological record, two prominent transgressive events (Lower Muschelkalk, Upper Muschelkalk) are indicated by increased abundances of marine particulate organic matter in palynofacies data. Marginal marine influence is documented at the base of the studied interval, comprising the Buntsandstein and the base of the Lower Muschelkalk. Carbonate carbon isotopes data show a negative shift at the boundary between lower and middle Muschelkalk. Coincidently, a prominent change in relative abundances of climate-sensitive plant groups (e.g. <em>Triadispora </em>spp. vs. Pteridophytes) indicate a change to relatively dryer climatic conditions during the middle Muschelkalk.</p> PETER A. HOCHULI ELKE SCHNEEBELI-HERMANN PETER BRACK KARL RAMSEYER DANIEL REBETEZ Copyright (c) 2020-05-05 2020-05-05 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13421 FISH OTOLITHS FROM THE LATE MAASTRICHTIAN KEMP CLAY (TEXAS, USA) AND THE EARLY DANIAN CLAYTON FORMATION (ARKANSAS, USA) AND AN ASSESSMENT OF EXTINCTION AND SURVIVAL OF TELEOST LINEAGES ACROSS THE K-PG BOUNDARY BASED ON OTOLITHS https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13425 <p>Otolith assemblages have rarely been studied across the K-Pg boundary. The late Maastrichtian Kemp Clay of northeastern Texas and the Fox Hills Formation of North Dakota, and the early Danian Clayton Formation of Arkansas therefore offer new insights into how teleost fishes managed across the K-Pg boundary as reconstructed from their otoliths. The Kemp Clay contains 25 species, with 6 new species and 2 in open nomenclature and the Fox Hills Formation contains 4 species including 1 new species. The two otolith associations constitute the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) community. It contains the earliest unambiguous representatives of the Gadiformes (cods and hakes) and the Heterenchelyidae (mud eels). The WIS community differs significantly from other Maastrichtian otolith assemblages previously studied from Mississippi and Maryland, which constitute the Appalachian community, with only 4 shared species (similarity percentage of 7.3%) between both communities. The difference is interpreted to be related to cold-water influence in the WIS community, which may have still been connected to the Arctic Basin, and to the depostional environment (muddy bottom) in the Kemp Clay.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Kemp Clay is unusually rich in taxa that survived the end-Cretaceous extinction event and are still present in the Danian of the Clayton Formation, or, as the case may be, in the Danian and Selandian of the boreal northern European community known from Denmark. Approximately 54% of all otolith-based teleost species identified from the Maastrichtian WIS community survived the K-Pg boundary event (versus 11-12% in other communities) and 73% of the genera (versus 40-50% in other communities). The early Danian Clayton Formation contains an impoverished inherited association with 14 species, of which 11 are survivors from late Maastrichtian times, 1 species is new, and 2 remain in open nomenclature. This compares to a significantly higher degree of newly evolved species in only slightly younger faunas from the middle to late Danian and Selandian of Europe indicating an initially slow pace of recovery.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The observed differences in survival and the composition of survived and extinct taxa are discussed in the light of the ongoing discussions concerning the consequences and effects that led to the end-Cretaceous extinction event commonly thought to have been caused by a large meteorite impact. In our assessment, an ‘impact winter’ could have had a major influence on the live cycle of tropical to subtropical fishes while perturbations in the pelagic food web or ocean surface acidification might have had a minor and more selective effect. Overall, teleost fishes were significantly affected by the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, but to a much lesser extent than in many other biota. This study provides more evidence of the importance of Late Cretaceous otolith assemblages in the USA for interpreting teleostean evolution.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The newly described taxa are: <em>Elopothrissus carsonsloani</em> n. sp., <em>Pythonichthys arkansasensis</em> n. sp., <em>Congrophichthus transterminus</em> n. gen., n. sp., <em>Rhynchoconger brettwoodwardi</em> n. sp., <em>Palaeogadus weltoni</em> n. sp., <em>Dakotaichthys hogansoni</em> n. gen., n. sp., and <em>Ampheristus americanus</em> n. sp.</p> WERNER SCHWARZHANS GARY L. STRINGER Copyright (c) 2020-05-06 2020-05-06 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13425 STUDIES ON PYCNODONT FISHES (II): REVISION OF THE SUBFAMILY PYCNODONTINAE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITALIAN FORMS https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13514 <p>The diagnosis, composition, and phylogenetic relationships of the European subfamily Pycnodontinae are revised; its record is pushed back from the Cenozoic into the Mesozoic. The Pycnodontinae is confirmed as a monophyletic group. It is diagnosed by: thin, laminar supraoccipital exposed all along the posterior border of the skull roof; cleithrum with two posterior expansions framing the notch for the pectoral fin; reduction in the ossification of the flank scales (clathrate pattern); reduction of the preopercular into a very low bone, never higher than the exposed, ornamented portion of the dermohyomandibular; and presence of a bifid cloacal scale. The subfamily includes the tribe Pycnodontini (<em>Pycnodus</em> + <em>Oropycnodus</em>), <em>Polazzodus</em>, <em>Sylvienodus</em>, and <em>Tergestinia</em>. The former “<em>Coelodus</em>” <em>gridellii</em> is moved to <em>Polazzodus gridellii</em> n. comb. The Italian genera,&nbsp; <em>Pycnodus</em>, <em>Polazzodus</em>, and <em>Tergestinia</em>, form a monophyletic group together with the French <em>Oropycnodus</em>. The present analysis shows that <em>Polazzodus</em>, <em>Sylvienodus</em>, and <em>Tergestinia</em> are pycnodontin fishes, but. <em>Haqelpycnodus</em>, <em>Libanopycnodus, Scalacurvichthys</em>, and <em>Sigmapycnodus </em>do not belong to the Pycnodontinae. “<em>Pseudopycnodus</em>” and “<em>P</em>. <em>nardoensis</em>” are considered <em>nomina dubia</em>. This revision has revealed new aspects of the last known diversification in the evolutionary history of the Pycnodontiformes, showing that the group was still thriving in the Western Tethys during the Late Cretaceous. For the present analysis, additional arguments involving ontogenetic restrictions are provided to favour ordering multistate characters in pycnodonts.</p> FRANCISCO JOSÉ POYATO-ARIZA Copyright (c) 2020-05-21 2020-05-21 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13514 LOCOMOTOR FUNCTION OF SCALES AND AXIAL SKELETON IN MIDDLE–LATE TRIASSIC SPECIES OF <em>SAURICHTHYS</em> (ACTINOPTERYGII) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13551 <p>Starting in the Late Permian, the “Triassic osteichthyan revolution” gave rise to several new morphotypes of actinopterygians, including the iconic barracuda-shaped predator <em>Saurichthys</em>. About 50 species, from 10 cm to over 1.5 m long, are known from mainly marine deposits worldwide. Despite current interest in <em>Saurichthys</em>, freshwater species and those from late Middle to early Late Triassic remain understudied. We document the postcranial morphology of three small to mid-sized (15–45 cm) species from this timeframe represented by sufficiently complete individuals: <em>Saurichthys orientalis</em> Sytchevskaya, 1999, from lacustrine deposits of the Madygen Formation (late Ladinian/Carnian); <em>S. striolatus</em> (Bronn, 1858) from the fully marine Predil Limestone (early Carnian); and <em>S. calcaratus </em>Griffith, 1977, from the terrigenously influenced coastal environment of the Lunz Formation (middle Carnian). <em>S. orientalis</em> resembles early saurichthyids in having six rows of large, thick ganoid scales; fins with segmented lepidotrichia; and flank scales relating to dorsal vertebral elements as 1:2. <em>S. calcaratus</em> and <em>S. striolatus</em> share unsegmented fin rays and a reduced scale cover with well-ossified but narrow mid-dorsal and mid-ventral scales and small, thin flank scales, relating to the dorsal arcualia as 1:1. Ventral arcualia are first described for <em>S. calcaratus </em>and<em> S. striolatus</em>, where they change in shape and number at the abdominal-caudal transition. In all three species, force transmission to the tail fin is enhanced by the caudal peduncle strengthened by a stiff structure arising from interlocking or fusion of the last enlarged mid-dorsal and mid-ventral scales (scutes), while the vertebral column remains rather lightly built.</p> ILJA KOGAN ANDREA TINTORI MARTIN LICHT Copyright (c) 2020-05-28 2020-05-28 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13551 UPPER TRIASSIC CALCAREOUS ALGAE FROM THE PANTHALASSA OCEAN https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13681 <p>Upper Triassic calcareous algae, abundant and well-diversified in Tethyan deposits, have rarely been described in rocks of Panthalassan origin. Over the past ten years, several studies were performed on Upper Triassic carbonate deposits of Panthalassan affinity in North America, Japan and Far East Russia, revealing unexpectedly rich and diversified assemblages. The samples were collected from nine localities situated on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. The identified algal assemblage consists of green and red algae, including fourteen dasycladaleans, rare bryopsidaleans, and several rhodophyceans. This paper describes the main algal taxa, including six new species: <em>Holosporella</em>? <em>rossanae </em>Bucur &amp; Del Piero n. sp., <em>Holosporella magna</em> Bucur &amp; Fucelli n. sp., <em>Griphoporella minuta</em> Bucur &amp; Peybernes n. sp., <em>Patruliuspora pacifica</em> Bucur, Del Piero &amp; Peyrotty n. sp., <em>Patruliuspora oregonica</em> Bucur &amp; Rigaud n. sp. and <em>Collarecodium</em>? <em>nezpercae</em> Bucur &amp; Rigaud n. sp. Rivulariacean-like cyanobacteria and thaumatoporellacean algae are also present. The whole Panthalassan algal assemblage comprises both unknown (?endemic) and common taxa of the Tethyan domain. To explain the cosmopolitan distribution of various Upper Triassic benthic organisms scleractinian corals, calcified sponges, foraminifera), a close connection with the Tethys Ocean was hypothesized by different authors. During the Late Triassic, the Tethys was open to the east on the Western Panthalassa but not to the west, suggesting that Triassic calcareous algae were able to efficiently colonize environments that are estimated to be more than 10’000 km apart. An adventitious transport of calcareous algae and/or their spores is proposed to explain this long-range algal dispersal.</p> IOAN I. BUCUR SYLVAIN RIGAUD NICOLÒ DEL PIERO ANDREA FUCELLI ERIC HEERWAGEN CAMILLE PEYBERNES GIOVAN PEYROTTY CHRISTIAN VERARD JÉRÔME CHABLAIS ROSSANA MARTINI Copyright (c) 2020-06-19 2020-06-19 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13681 CHRONOLOGY OF THE MESSINIAN EVENTS IN THE NORTHERNMOST PART OF THE MEDITERRANEAN: THE GOVONE SECTION (PIEDMONT BASIN, NW ITALY) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13705 <p>In marginal Mediterranean sub-basins the first phase of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) is recorded by primary sulfate evaporites (Primary Lower Gypsum unit); in deeper settings, the gypsum makes lateral transition into shales and marls usually barren of calcareous fossils that can hamper the identification of the MSC onset. The Govone section (Piedmont Basin, NW Italy) represents an opportunity to examine in detail the pre-MSC interval and the transition to the first stage of the MSC in a relatively deep marginal basin in the northernmost sector of the Mediterranean. We provide herein an age model for the Govone section, based on an integrated stratigraphic study, including cycloctratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and micropaleontology (foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) of the pre-MSC interval and the transition to the MSC. Chron C3An.1n has not been recognized in the study succession, most likely due to early diagenetic processes. Thus, the last occurrence of <em>Turborotalita multiloba</em> occurring two lithological cycles above the second influx of <em>G. scitula</em>, is the event that best approximate the MSC onset and is consistently recorded across the Piedmont Basin, with higher abundance respect to coeval Mediterranean successions. The calibration of the lithological cyclicity by means of these two bioevents allowed to recognize that, unlike other Mediterranean sections, the disappearance of calcareous microfossils occurs before the MSC onset, probably, in response of diagenetic processes favouring the dissolution of calcareous shells.</p> ROCCO GENNARI FRANCESCA LOZAR MARCELLO NATALICCHIO ELENA ZANELLA GIORGIO CARNEVALE FRANCESCO DELA PIERRE Copyright (c) 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13705 SAHABI <em>EURYGNATHOHIPPUS FEIBELI</em>: ITS SYSTEMATIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, CHRONOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC CONTEXTS https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/13937 <p>Sahabi, Libya is an important latest Miocene locality having yielded an extensive paleobotanical and vertebrate fauna. Amongst the fossil mammals there occurs an extensive, species diverse record of hipparionine horses. We develop here a complete record of Sahabi <em>Eurygnathohippus feibeli </em>now based on dental and postcranial material, in comparison to other equids from late Miocene equids from Europe, West Asia and Africa. We find that <em>E. feibeli </em>is the earliest recognized species of the predominantly African clade <em>Eurygnathohippus</em>, that its biogeographic range was Kenya, Ethiopia, Libya and Morocco, it ranged between 7.0 and 5.7 Ma and that it had deep-time evolutionary roots extending back to first occurring Old World hipparions. We further find that <em>Eurygnathohippus </em>was restricted to Africa until a more advanced member of the clade extended its range into the Indian Subcontinent during the late Pliocene, ca. 3.6-2.6 Ma.</p> RAYMOND L. BERNOR NOEL T. BOAZ OMAR CIRILLI MOFTAH H. EL-SHAWAIHDI LORENZO ROOK Copyright (c) 2020-07-17 2020-07-17 126 2 10.13130/2039-4942/13937