RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS <p>The Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia is a <strong>free of charge</strong> <strong>OPEN ACCESS </strong>peer reviewed journal.</p> <p>RIPS publishes original contributions on all aspects of palaeontology and stratigraphy.</p> <p>All papers are written in English and are reviewed by international experts.</p> <p>The journal is currently indexed and abstracted by AGI, ISI, Current Contents, Georef, Geological Abstract and SciSearch.</p> <p><strong>Web of Science Journal Citation Reports 2018</strong>: &nbsp;Journal Impact Factor <strong>1.232</strong>, 5-Year Impact Factor&nbsp;<strong>1.270</strong>, Total Cites&nbsp;<strong>1069</strong></p> <p><strong>Scopus CiteScore 2018</strong>:&nbsp;<strong>1.53</strong></p> <p><strong>OPEN ACCESS POLICY</strong>: RIPS is published under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives Licence 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</a></p> <p>On Facebook:&nbsp;<a href="https://www.facebook.com/RIPS15/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.facebook.com/RIPS15/</a></p> <p>On Twitter:&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/rivistapaleo" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://twitter.com/rivistapaleo</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Università degli Studi di Milano en-US RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA 0035-6883 <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licenza Creative Commons" /></a><br />Rivista italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia di <a href="/index.php/RIPS" rel="cc:attributionURL">http://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS</a> è distribuito con Licenza <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale</a>.</p><p>The journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</p> THE HIPPARIONINE HORSES (PERISSODACTYLA: MAMMALIA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF TIZI N’TADDERHT (SOUTHERN OUARZAZATE BASIN; CENTRAL HIGH ATLAS; MOROCCO) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12716 <p>The fossiliferous locality of Tizi N’Tadderht, already known in the literature , has yielded a significant vertebrate fossil association as it represents the first documentation of a Late Miocene vertebrate fauna in the western area of North Africa. The group of fossil Equidae here analyzed had been preliminarly studied by previous authors, who identified the following hipparionini species: aff. <em>Cremohipparion periafricanum</em>, Hippotheriini gen. et sp. indet., and cf. <em>Hippotherium primigenium</em>. The sample retrieved from the considered area has been revised through the description of the morphologies and the dimensional measurements analysis. Then, it has been compared with the collection of fossil Equidae of the Libyan fossil site of As Sahabi, where the following species of Equidae hipparionini are represented: <em>Sivalhippus</em> sp., <em>Eurygnathohippus feibeli</em> and <em>Cremohipparion mattewi</em>. The revision of the Tizi N’Tadderht association led to the identification of the following species: <em>Hippotherium</em> sp. (characterized by large size); <em>Eurygnathohippus</em> cf. <em>feibeli</em> (a medium-sized Equidae; for the first time recognized in the Tizi N’Tadderht site); aff. <em>Cremohipparion periafricanum</em> (distinguished for its small size, as previously hypothesized in literature). The discovery of <em>Eurygnathohippus </em>cf<em>. feibeli</em> at Tizi N’Tadderht is of particular importance as it extends the paleogeographic record of this <em>Hipparion</em> species present in other African sites, showing that it is well represented in the fossil record of the Late Miocene.</p> OMAR CIRILLI SAMIR ZOUHRI SIHAM EL BOUGHABI MARCO G. BENVENUTI MAURO PAPINI RAYMOND LOUIS BERNOR LORENZO ROOK Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 126 1 10.13130/2039-4942/12716 TWO REMARKABLE FOSSIL INSECT LARVAE FROM BURMESE AMBER SUGGEST THE PRESENCE OF A TERMINAL FILUM IN THE DIRECT STEM LINEAGE OF DRAGONFLIES AND DAMSELFLIES (ODONATA) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12720 <p>The fossil record of dragonfly relatives (Odonatoptera) dates back to the Carboniferous, yet knowledge about these extinct animals is meagre. For most of the species little is known except for the characteristics of the wing venation. As a result, it is difficult to include fossil larvae in a (wing character based) phylogenetic tree as the wing venation is not visible in most of the larval instars.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Two larval specimens from Cretaceous Burmese amber are in the focus of this study. The two specimens likely represent two subsequent early stage larval instars of the same individual. Not only is this an exceptional case to study ontogenetic processes in fossils – the larval instars are morphologically completely different from all known larvae of Odonata with respect to the posterior abdominal region. Therefore, besides the difficulties regarding the phylogenetic interpretation and though all Burmese amber odonatans are known from adults only, a new species – <em>Arcanodraco filicauda</em> n. sp. – is formally described.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Aside from likely representing a new species, the morphology of the posterior abdominal region is highly informative for reconstructing the character evolution within the lineage towards modern dragonflies and damselflies. A long median process in both of the fossils meets all criteria to be interpreted as a terminal filum (structure or derivative of tergite of abdominal segment 11, annulated in one of the specimens). Although the exact phylogenetic affinity of <em>Arcanodraco filicauda</em> n. sp. remains enigmatic, the presence of a larval terminal filum can be reconstructed for the ground pattern of Odonatoptera (including its direct stem lineage).</p> MARIO SCHÄDEL PATRICK MÜLLER JOACHIM T. HAUG Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 126 1 10.13130/2039-4942/12720 INVESTIGATING ECOLOGICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC CONSTRAINTS IN HIPPOPOTAMIDAE SKULL SHAPE https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12730 <p>Hippopotamidae are a group of large-sized mammals of interest for testing evolutionary traits in time and space. Variation in skull shape within Hippopotamidae is here investigated by means of shape analysis (Geometric Morphometrics) and modern statistical approaches. Two-dimensional shape analysis is applied to dorsal and lateral views of extant and extinct Hippopotamidae species sufficiently preserved to allow their morphology to be captured by landmark and semi-landmark digitization. The results show that <em>Hippopotamus gorgops</em> and <em>H. antiquus</em> display similar shapes, while <em>Hexaprotodon palaeindicus</em> falls within the morphospace occupied by <em>H. amphibius</em>, suggesting similar morphology. The cranial shape of the Sicilian hippopotamus (<em>H. pentlandi</em>) still resembles that of <em>H. amphibius</em> in lateral view, suggesting that adaptation to the insular domain was yet not fully attained. Madagascan hippopotamuses (<em>H. madagascariensis</em> and <em>H. lemerlei</em>) are close to the pygmy hippo, <em>Choeropsis liberiensis</em>, in PC1 values; nevertheless, the cranial shape of the Madagascan hippos seems not to be closely related to the cranial shape of <em>C. liberiensis</em>. Despite the morphological convergences within the group, while cranial shape in Hippopotamidae is phylogenetically structured, this does not hold for size. Although further investigations are needed to test the influence of ecological and palaeoecological parameters on the general shape to provide additional information for understanding Hippopotamidae evolution and adaptation, the present study provides an insight into the evolutionary framework of Hippopotamidae.</p> LUCA PANDOLFI ROBERTA MARTINO LORENZO ROOK PAOLO PIRAS Copyright (c) 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 126 1 10.13130/2039-4942/12730 TECTONO-STRATIGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE AIT KANDOULA FORMATION (MIDDLE MIOCENE-PLIOCENE), WESTERN OUARZAZATE BASIN (SOUTHERN MOROCCO) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12731 <p>This paper reports the results of a stratigraphic revision of the Ait Kandoula Formation exposed in the western Ouarzazate Basin (Middle Miocene-Lower Pliocene, Southern Morocco). This formation is part of the upper Eocene-Quaternary continental Imerhane Group considered to record the main stage in the building of the Central High Atlas (CHA) under a regime of tectonic inversion of Mesozoic rifted basins. The development of this chain during the late Cenozoic generated a south-verging structural front and the related Ait Kandoula and Ait Seddrat sub-basins facing the wider Ouarzazate foreland basin. The revision of the Ait Kandoula Formation, occurring in both the Ouarzazate Basin and Ait Kandoula sub-basin, was carried out through new field observations, remote sensing and exploiting the distribution and the biochronologic range of fossil micro- and macro-vertebrate associations available from previous studies. In the western Ouarzazate Basin four stratigraphic-depositional sub-units (AK1-4) were distinguished in this formation, attesting to the development of a fluvio-lacustrine setting. This was strongly influenced by the syn-depositional deformation of the growing southern front of the CHA and by the episodic activity of shear zones oriented transversally to this front. The chronostratigraphic constraint provided by the mammal assemblages and by their magnetostratigraphic calibration, suggests a five-stage scenario for the tectono-sedimentary development of this actively deforming front and its related foreland and satellite depocentres between the Middle Miocene and the Early Pliocene. In the proposed reconstruction, the interplay of front-parallel thrust faults and front-transverse shear zones controlled the fluvial supply to the Ouarzazate Basin and later on the activation of the Ait Kandoula sub-basin.&nbsp;</p> MARCO BENVENUTI GIOVANNA MORATTI LORENZO ROOK Copyright (c) 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 126 1 10.13130/2039-4942/12731