RIVISTA ITALIANA DI PALEONTOLOGIA E STRATIGRAFIA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS <p>The Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia is a <strong>free of charge</strong> <strong>OPEN ACCESS </strong>peer reviewed journal.</p> <p>RIPS publishes original contributions on all aspects of palaeontology and stratigraphy.</p> <p>All papers are written in English and are reviewed by international experts.</p> <p>The journal is currently indexed and abstracted by AGI, ISI, Current Contents, Georef, Geological Abstract and SciSearch.</p> <p><strong>Web of Science Journal Citation Reports 2018</strong>: &nbsp;Journal Impact Factor <strong>1.232</strong>, 5-Year Impact Factor&nbsp;<strong>1.270</strong>, Total Cites&nbsp;<strong>1069</strong></p> <p><strong>Scopus CiteScore 2018</strong>:&nbsp;<strong>1.53</strong></p> <p><strong>OPEN ACCESS POLICY</strong>: RIPS is published under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives Licence 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</a></p> <p>On Facebook:&nbsp;<a href="https://www.facebook.com/RIPS15/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.facebook.com/RIPS15/</a></p> <p>On Twitter:&nbsp;<a href="https://twitter.com/rivistapaleo" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://twitter.com/rivistapaleo</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licenza Creative Commons" /></a><br />Rivista italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia di <a href="/index.php/RIPS" rel="cc:attributionURL">http://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS</a> è distribuito con Licenza <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale</a>.</p><p>The journal allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</p> rips@unimi.it (Lucia Angiolini & Fabrizio Berra) cristina.lombardo@unimi.it (Cristina Lombardo) Wed, 11 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Foreword 125-3 - Proceedings of the 8th International Brachiopod Congress https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12308 <p>The 8 th International Brachiopod Congress took place in the prestigious venue of the University of Milano, Italy, in September 2018, after the previous edition held in Nanjing, China, in 2015. 150 participants from universities and research institutes from all over the world attended the meeting, from Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States of America.</p> Lucia Angiolini, Gaia Crippa, Claudio Garbelli, Renato Posenato Copyright (c) 2019 Lucia Angiolini, Gaia Crippa, Claudio Garbelli, Renato Posenato http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12308 Mon, 04 Nov 2019 11:12:31 +0000 EARLY JURASSIC TEREBRATULIDE BRACHIOPODS FROM ZEALANDIA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12160 <p>Terebratulides, a minor group in New Zealand and New Caledonian Triassic faunas, become second in prominence only to rhynchonellides in the Jurassic.&nbsp; In this study, a total of seven genera and twelve species are recognised and eight new species are described.</p> <p><em>Lobothyris</em> <em>simesi</em> n. sp. is present throughout the Sinemurian to middle Toarcian.&nbsp; <em>Loboidothyris</em> <em>fordycei</em> n. sp. is common in the late Sinemurian to Pliensbachian of the Hokonui Hills, and a few specimens are recorded from scattered Pliensbachian-Toarcian localities elsewhere. <em>Zeilleria spiculata</em> MacFarlan and Campbell is found in a narrow zone along the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Hokonui Hills. <em>Z. terezowae</em> n. sp. is found throughout most of the Early Jurassic, while <em>Z. recessa</em> n. sp. and <em>Z. sacciformis </em>n. sp. have more restricted ranges.&nbsp; The Sinemurian <em>Aulacothyris stevensi </em>n. sp. is known from the Hokonui Hills, and the coast north of Marokopa. Two further forms of <em>Aulacothyris</em> are present.</p> <p><em>Linguithyris agerorum</em> Manceñido was described from Port Waikato, and is here recorded from New Caledonia. <em>Tegulithyris</em>?<em> plencnerae</em> n. sp. is known from the Sinemurian to Toarcian of Kawhia, and <em>Rugithyris</em> <em>hasibuani</em> n. sp. from the Awakino area.</p> <p><em>Lobothyris</em>, <em>Aulacothyris</em> and <em>Zeilleria</em> are cosmopolitan and widely distributed. <em>Loboidothyris</em> is also cosmopolitan, but has a Tethyan aspect. <em>Tegulithyris</em> and <em>Rugithyris</em> are Tethyan. <em>Linguithyris</em> is also known from southern Europe, North Africa and western Asia. The highest Early Jurassic brachiopod faunas occur at or just above the <em>Dactylioceras</em> band near Kawhia, which is correlated with the top of the early Toarcian and lies above the Toarcian event in Western Europe.</p> DONALD ALEXANDER BANKIER MACFARLAN Copyright (c) 2019 DONALD ALEXANDER BANKIER MACFARLAN http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12160 RECENT BRACHIOPODS FROM THE TONGA ISLANDS, SW PACIFIC: TAXONOMY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12161 <p>Twenty species of Recent brachiopods belonging to the genera <em>Neoancistrocrania</em>, <em>Basiliola</em>, <em>Basiliolella</em>, <em>Dyscolia</em>, <em>Abyssothyris</em>, <em>Xenobrochus</em>, <em>Terebratulina</em>, <em>Fallax</em>, <em>Septicollarina</em>, <em>Frenulina</em>, <em>Amphithyris</em>, <em>Annuloplatidia</em>, <em>Leptothyrella</em>, <em>Dallina</em>, <em>Campages</em>, <em>Thecidellina</em> and <em>Minutella</em> have been identified in the material collected during the French cruise Bordau 2 to the Tonga Islands, South-West Pacific. Apart from <em>Frenulina sanguinolenta</em> all species represent the first records for the Tonga Islands. The investigated brachiopod fauna shows the greatest affinity to that from Fiji and New Caledonia, having 16 and 12 species in common, respectively. Although less affinity is observed with the New Zealand fauna, there are two species, <em>Terebratulina australis</em> and <em>Amphithyris buckmani</em> reported so far only from New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. The biodiversity of brachiopods inTonga is similar to that inFiji but half as great as that inNew Caledonia andNew Zealand regions and much higher than inFrench Polynesia.</p> MARIA ALEKSANDRA BITNER Copyright (c) 2019 MARIA ALEKSANDRA BITNER http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12161 A MIXED PERMIAN–TRIASSIC BOUNDARY BRACHIOPOD FAUNA FROM GUIZHOU PROVINCE, SOUTH CHINA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12162 <p>Although many studies have been concerned with Changhsingian brachiopod faunas in South China, brachiopod faunas of the mixed nearshore clastic–carbonate facies have not been studied in detail. In this paper, a brachiopod fauna collected from the Changhsingian Wangjiazhai Formation and the Griesbachian Yelang Formation at the Liuzhi section (Guizhou Province, South China) is described. The Liuzhi section represents mixed clastic–carbonate facies and yields 30 species of 16 genera of brachiopod. Among the described and illustrated species, new morphological features of genera <em>Peltichia</em>, <em>Prelissorhynchia</em> and <em>Spiriferellina</em> are provided. Because of limited materials, four undetermined species instead of new species from these three genera are proposed. The Liuzhi brachiopod fauna from lower part of the Wangjiazhai Formation shares most genera with fauna of carbonate facies in South China, and the fauna from the upper part is similar to that from the Zhongzhai and Zhongying sections, representative shallow-water clastic facies sections in Guizhou Province. Consistent with the lithological feature of the Wangjiazhai Formation at the Liuzhi section, the Liuzhi brachiopod fauna shows similar changing pattern with fauna from sections of shallow-water clastic and carbonate facies, and all present a sudden decline of diversity prior to the Permian–Triassic boundary.</p> HUI-TING WU, YANG ZHANG, YUAN-LIN SUN Copyright (c) 2019 HUI-TING WU, YANG ZHANG, YUAN-LIN SUN http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12162 ON THE VALIDITY OF <em>TEREBRATULA SINUOSA</em> (BROCCHI) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12163 <p>Here we aim to fix some nomenclatural problems relating to the definition of <em>Terebratula</em> <em>sinuosa</em>. In 1616 Fabio Colonna first described two different brachiopod specimens from Italy which were later attributed to the genus <em>Terebratula</em>. In 1758 Linnaeus erected <em>Anomia terebratula</em> in reference to the drawings of Colonna. He described the heavily sulciplicate specimen figured on the upper left (specimen number 4) but addressed the specimen as if it was the number 1 in the figure (upper right). Several authors later inadvertently followed the error of Linnaeus. The neotype for <em>T. terebratula</em>, indicated in 1998 by Lee &amp; Brunton, refers to the specimen number 1 in Colonna’s figure (the one to the upper right). The two specimens in Colonna were originally considered synonyms. However, the sulciplicate specimen number 4, originally figured by Colonna, refers to a distinctive Miocene <em>Terebratula</em> species, which has been often referred to as <em>Terebratula sinuosa</em>. We review evidence in favour of such a designation and provide stratigraphic and morphological evidence that <em>T. sinuosa</em> deserves the full rank of species. The name <em>T. sinuosa</em> should be maintained given the long tradition of the name in the literature, and the definition of <em>T. terebratula </em>should therefore be amended.</p> EMMA TADDEI RUGGIERO, CARMELA SERIO, PASQUALE RAIA Copyright (c) 2019 EMMA TADDEI RUGGIERO, CARMELA SERIO, PASQUALE RAIA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12163 VIRGIANID BRACHIOPODS OF THE MICHIGAN BASIN, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR POST-EXTINCTION DIVERSIFICATION OF THE SILURIAN PENTAMERIDE FAUNA IN LAURENTIA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12168 <p>Three virgianid genera are present in the Michigan Basin. The oldest, <em>Virgiana mayvillensis</em> Savage from the Mayville Dolomite, is upper Rhuddanian in age and coeval with the same species on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. “<em>Virgiana</em>”<em> major</em> Savage, 1916, from the uppermost Lime Island (uppermost Rhuddanian), has an incipient cruralium supported anteriorly by a low median ridge, for which <em>Virgianoides</em> gen. nov. is proposed in this study. <em>Platymerella</em> in the Elwood&nbsp; Formation (uppermost Rhuddanian) was the most southerly virgianid occurrence in the American mid-continent. The early evolution of the <em>Brevilamnulella</em>-<em>Viridita</em>-<em>Virgiana</em> lineage was represented by the early-middle Rhuddanian fossil record of Anticosti Island. Available fossil data indicate that the <em>Virgiana</em> invasion into intracratonic basins did not begin until late Rhuddanian time, represented by the excellent record of <em>V</em>. <em>mayvillensis</em> in the Michigan Basin, and <em>V</em>. <em>decussata</em> in the Hudson Bay and Williston basins. Despite its late arrival, virgianids thrived for a somewhat longer geological time in the Michigan Basin, represented by <em>Virgianoides</em> and <em>Platymerella</em> in the latest Rhuddanian, when virgianids largely became extinct in other basins of Laurentia.</p> JISUO JIN, DONALD MIKULIC, JOANNE KLUESSENDORF Copyright (c) 2019 JISUO JIN, DONALD MIKULIC, JOANNE KLUESSENDORF http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12168 LINGULIFORM MICROBRACHIOPODS FROM LAS AGUADITAS AND LAS CHACRITAS FORMATIONS (MIDDLE-UPPER ORDOVICIAN) OF ARGENTINE PRECORDILLERA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12169 <p>Middle-Upper Ordovician linguliform microbrachiopods are described and illustrated for the first time from the Las Aguaditas Formation at the Los Blanquitos and Mogotes Azules ranges and from the Las Chacritas Formation at the Las Chacritas River section, Central Argentine Precordillera. This systematic study includes nine families, namely Obolidae, Paterulidae, Discinidae, Acrotretidae, Scaphelasmatidae, Torynelasmatidae, Ephippelasmatidae, Biernatidae and Eoconulidae. This diverse fauna is conformed of specimens corresponding to <em>Lingulops</em> sp., <em>Paterula incognita</em> Mergl, <em>Schizotreta</em> sp., <em>Scaphelasma zharykensis</em> Popov, <em>Torynelasma?</em> sp., <em>Akmolina</em> sp., <em>Ephippelasma</em> sp., <em>Numericoma simplex</em> Holmer, and <em>Eoconulus</em> sp. However, specimens from the order Acrotretida proved to be an important component of this fauna, enabling the recognition of two new species which are thoroughly described, <em>Conotreta andina</em> n. sp. and <em>Biernatia rhapsody</em> n. sp.</p> FERNANDO JULIÁN LAVIÉ, FERNANDA SERRA, NICOLÁS ALEXIS FELTES Copyright (c) 2019 FERNANDO JULIÁN LAVIÉ, FERNANDA SERRA, NICOLÁS ALEXIS FELTES http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12169 PATTERNS OF UNREPAIRED SHELL DAMAGE IN RECENT BRACHIOPODS FROM FIORDLAND (NEW ZEALAND) https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12170 <p>In order to provide quantitative data concerning patterns of shell breakage and repair in rhynchonelliform brachiopods, we studied undisturbed death assemblages from a New Zealand fiord complex where three species of terebratulide and one rhynchonellide occur in dense mixed patches on the near vertical walls. Proportions of damaged (both repaired and non-repaired) individuals varied between both taxa and sampling site. However, the general observation was that few individuals show signs of having been able to repair damage but the proportion of individuals showing unrepaired, and hence presumably fatal, breakages was higher (up to 76% in <em>Magasella sanguinea</em> from one sample from Tricky Cove in Doubtful Sound). Damage was mostly concentrated around the anterior margins and affected both valves and is consistent with having been clamped between a set of either jaws or claws. Potential culprits include fish (wrasse), rock lobsters and echinoids. As yet it is unclear whether the damage results from deliberate feeding activity or as collateral damage from grazers feeding on other organisms on the fiord walls which may allow secondary predation by asteroids. The net effect is, however, the same, in that the damage appears to have been fatal. More structured sampling is now required to understand the spatial variation in this damage and mortality, and also to establish the culprits with more certainty.</p> ELIZABETH M. HARPER, MILES D. LAMARE, DAPHNE E. LEE Copyright (c) 2019 ELIZABETH M. HARPER, MILES D. LAMARE, DAPHNE E. LEE http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12170 PALEOECOLOGY AND FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE PERMIAN LYTTONIID BRACHIOPOD <em>PIRGULIA</em> https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12172 <p>The lyttoniid brachiopods of the Permian exhibit a unique valve morphology: a branched lobate structure takes the form of the dorsal valve. In one group of lyttoniids, the genus <em>Pirgulia</em>, the ventral valve wraps around to form a cone that fully encloses the lobate structure. This has consequences for the dynamics of water flow and mode of life possible for these heteromorphic brachiopods. Here, we describe the skeletal microstructure and morphology of <em>Pirgulia</em> collected from the Upper Permian Sosio Limestone megablocks of Sicily and housed at the Yale Peabody Museum. We reconstruct the paleoecology of <em>Pirgulia</em>, characterizing it as semi-infaunal in soft sediment. By analogy to <em>Richthofenia</em>, the conical ventral valve and flapping dorsal valve functional morphology could have resisted fouling and assisted feeding in this environment. By comparison with the functional morphology of <em>Pirgulia</em> with other lyttoniids and richthofenids, we propose a revised mode of life for this genus, which involves adaptation to secondary soft-bottom substrates and support by sediment sticking. Despite constraints to the fundamental brachiopod body plan, modification of the valves in <em>Pirgulia</em> to achieve a conical morphology allowed it to inhabit a paleoecological niche distinct from that of other reef-building lyttoniids.</p> DANIEL STADTMAUER, SUSAN BUTTS Copyright (c) 2019 DANIEL STADTMAUER, SUSAN BUTTS http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12172 AN IN SITU PRESERVED EARLY CARBONIFEROUS (SERPUKHOVIAN) BRACHIOPOD COMMUNITY IN SOUTHERN GUIZHOU, CHINA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12175 <p>A brachiopod shell bed from the Lower Carboniferous (Serpukhovian) in Guizhou Province of southern China is reported as representing an in situ preserved brachiopod community. The community is characterized by yielding more than 80% complete and articulated specimens preserved in life position and poor size sorting. A new spiriferide species, <em>Weiningia</em> <em>ziyunensis</em> n. sp., is described in the community, which contains the other eight species belonging to six genera. Morphology and preservation analysis of <em>Weiningia</em> <em>ziyunensis</em> n. sp. suggests that it lived in dense clusters attached to living and dead shells and stabilizing its position with thickened posterior shell. Size-frequency distribution and survivorship curve are applied to the population dynamics investigation of this species. Large number of juvenile shells accompanied by high mortality reflects that many juvenile individuals suffered from the limited life space and turbid environment generated by dense clusters. The same high adult mortality is the result of more pressure from neighbors that lead to shell malformation and eventually low feeding and cleaning efficiency, whereas the low senior mortality is attributed to their abilities to cope with these problems. Members of the community show great difference in numeric frequency, with <em>Weiningia ziyunensis</em> n. sp. being one of the dominant species that was characterized by crowded life strategy. By living in dense clusters on <em>Striatifera</em> <em>striata</em>&nbsp;(Fischer de Waldheim, 1837) or other shell fragments, <em>Weiningia</em> <em>ziyunensis</em> n. sp. could resist the water current and gradually expand its population.</p> ZHIWEI YUAN, YUANLIN SUN, BING SHEN, CHAOCHAO XING, WEI LIU, RUNYU YANG, SHUJIAN QIN, ANDRZEJ BALIŃSKI Copyright (c) 2019 ZHIWEI YUAN, YUANLIN SUN, BING SHEN, CHAOCHAO XING, WEI LIU, RUNYU YANG, SHUJIAN QIN, ANDRZEJ BALIŃSKI http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12175 MASS EXTINCTIONS AND CLADE EXTINCTIONS IN THE HISTORY OF BRACHIOPODS: BRIEF REVIEW AND A POST-PALEOZOIC CASE STUDY https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12184 <p>Brachiopods are a key group in Phanerozoic marine diversity analyses for their excellent fossil record and distinctive evolutionary history. A genus-level survey of raw diversity trajectories allows the identification of the Brachiopod Big Five, episodes of major genus losses in the phylum which are compared with the established Big Five mass extinctions of Phanerozoic marine invertebrates. The two lists differ in that the end-Cretaceous extinction appears subdued for brachiopods, whereas the mid-Carboniferous is recognized as an event with significant loss of brachiopod genera. At a higher taxonomic level, a review of temporal ranges of rhynchonelliform orders reveals episodes of synchronous termination of multiple orders, here termed clade extinctions. The end-Ordovician, Late Devonian and end-Permian events are registered as both mass extinctions and clade extinctions. The Late Cambrian and the Early Jurassic are identified as the other two clade extinction events. Coincident with the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event, the last clade extinction of brachiopods is defined by the disappearance of the last two spire-bearing orders, Athyridida and Spiriferinida. Their diversity trajectory through the recovery after the end-Permian crisis parallels that of the extant terebratulides and rhynchonellides until a Late Triassic peak but diverge afterwards. The end-Triassic diversity decline and Toarcian vanishing of spire-bearers correspond with contraction in their spatial distribution. The observed patterns and extinction selectivity may be explained both ecologically and physiologically. The specialized adaptation of morphologically diverse spire-bearers, as well as their fixed lophophore and passive feeding put them at a disadvantage at times of environmental crises, manifest in their end-Triassic near-extinction and Toarcian demise. Similar analyses of other clade extinctions may further improve our understanding of drivers and processes of extinction.</p> ATTILA VÖRÖS, ÁDÁM T. KOCSIS, JÓZSEF PÁLFY Copyright (c) 2019 ATTILA VÖRÖS, ÁDÁM T. KOCSIS, JÓZSEF PÁLFY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12184 LATE ORDOVICIAN BRACHIOPOD <em> RONGATRYPA XICHUANENSIS </em> FROM XICHUAN, HENAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL CHINA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12185 <p>The atrypide brachiopod <em>Rongatrypa</em> Popov &amp; Cocks, 2014 is one of the early members of the subfamily Clintonellinae. This genus was previously known only from the Kazakh terranes. Here, we reassign a species to the genus, <em>Rongatrypa xichuanensis</em> (Xu, 1996), from the Shiyanhe Formation (Katian, Upper Ordovician) of Xichuan, Henan Province, central China. A wide range of shell sizes was found and measured to investigate the ontogeny of the species, and several specimens were selected for serial sectioning to examine the internal morphology. The linear regression results of natural logarithms of length vs. width and depth vs. width revealed an allometric growth pattern, perhaps influenced by the development of the lophophore. <em>Rongatrypa xichuanensis</em> inhabited a shallow marine oxygenated environment in the South China palaeoplate near the palaeo-equator. The distribution of <em>Rongatrypa</em> across South China and Kazakh terranes reflects the proximity of these blocks in the Late Ordovician.</p> YU-CHEN ZHANG, REN-BIN ZHAN, COLIN D. SPROAT, BING HUANG Copyright (c) 2019 YU-CHEN ZHANG, REN-BIN ZHAN, COLIN D. SPROAT, BING HUANG http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12185 PRAGIAN-EMSIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM THE RHENISH MASSIF (GERMANY): NEW DATA ON EVOLUTION AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12194 <p>The succession of Pragian to Emsian (Early Devonian) brachiopod faunas from the Rhenish Massif (Germany) is briefly reviewed and interpreted with reference to a changing palaeoenvironment. A series of bioevents caused partial extinction or emigration of brachiopod species and succeeding immigration and dispersal of new species and speciation. The interplay of sea-level fluctuations, subsidence history and siliciclastic input from the Old Red Continent triggered the specific suitability of potential brachiopod habitats on the Rhenish Shelf. Three new taxa are proposed: <em>Fascistropheodonta</em>? <em>wiltzensis</em> n. sp., <em>Ingentistrophia</em> gen. n. and <em>Pachyschizophoria</em> <em>amygdalina</em> n. sp.</p> ULRICH JANSEN Copyright (c) 2019 ULRICH JANSEN http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12194 PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE SILURIAN AFRO-SOUTH AMERICAN BRACHIOPODS <em>ANABAIA , HARRINGTONINA</em> AND <em>CLARKEIA</em> : NEW INSIGHTS FROM THEIR ONTOGENY https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12224 <p>Hundreds of specimens of the rhynchonellide brachiopod <em>Clarkeia antisiensis</em> (d’Orbigny) recovered from the stratotype of the Tarabuco Formation of Bolivia form a complete series of growth stages providing a good opportunity for reconstructing its ontogenetic development. The fact that juvenile specimens of <em>C</em>. <em>antisiensis</em> are nearly indistinguishable from adult individuals of <em>Harringtonina australis </em>Boucot strongly suggests that <em>Clarkeia</em> evolved from <em>Harringtonina</em> by the heterochronic process of peramorphosis. On the other hand, adult specimens of both the Brazilian <em>Anabaia</em> <em>paraia </em>Clarke and the Precordilleran specimrens of <em>Anabaia</em> never exceed the youngest ontogenetic stage of <em>Harringtonina australis</em>, to which share small hinge plates supported by a septalium-like structure and absence of cardinal process. The overlap of adult morphology of <em>Anabaia</em> with the juvenile morphology of <em>Harringtonina</em> <em>australis </em>allows interpreting this succession as an evolutionary lineage showing increasingly more peramorphic characters. This hypothesis is supported by the correlation between the stratigraphic record of taxa and the inferred developmental sequence being <em>Anabaia</em> the oldest member (Early Silurian), <em>Harringtonina</em> <em>australis</em> the intermediate form (Wenlock-Ludlow), and <em>Clarkeia</em> <em>antisiensis</em> the youngest (Pridoli). This interpretation raises a systematic problem because the leptocoeliids <em>Anabaia</em> and <em>Harringtonina</em> are currently classified within the superfamily Uncinuloidea whereas <em>Clarkeia</em> is placed among the Rhynchotrematoidea. If the hypothesis is proven, these superfamilies, as presently constituted, would be polyphyletic groups.</p> FLORENCIA LEONE, JUAN L. BENEDETTO Copyright (c) 2019 FLORENCIA LEONE, JUAN L. BENEDETTO http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12224 Thu, 24 Oct 2019 10:03:30 +0000 BRACHIOPOD-BASED OXYGEN-ISOTOPE THERMOMETER: UPDATE AND REVIEW https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12226 <p>&nbsp;In the early 1950’s, McCrea and Epstein and co-workers laid the foundation for the oxygen isotope-based thermometers. Many variations of the thermometer have been since formulated based on synthetic and biogenic carbonates. Overall, the use and application of oxygen isotope thermometers must consider and be specific as to the mineralogy, and whether it is synthetic, abiogenic or biogenic carbonate. Here, we propose an updated and refined oxygen-isotope thermometer based on a large database of articulated brachiopods from high to low latitudes, cold to warm and shallow to deep-water regimes. In general, brachiopod-based oxygen isotopes are offset from abiogenic calcite precipitated in thermodynamic equilibrium by about -1 ‰. <br>They maintain this offset and that allows for the determination of robust ambient water temperatures over the full marine spectrum. Thus, the specific brachiopod-based oxygen-isotope thermometer applies, with few exceptions, to most modern articulated brachiopods, and potentially their ancient counterparts, and it is as follows:<br>T°C =17.3750 – 4.2535 (δc-δw) + 0.1473 (δc-δw) 2 (N=578, r 2 = 0.980)<br>Furthermore, it is imperative that mineralogy and taxa be considered for their appropriateness in the application of oxygen isotope thermometers on synthetic, abiogenic and biogenic marine carbonates. Articulated brachiopods are ideal recorders of oceanographic parameters due to their sessile nature, widespread distribution, high abundance in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, high resilience to most environmental stresses (e.g., climate change - global warming, ocean acidification), and the resistance of the calcite shell – the archive – to post-depositional diagenetic alteration.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> UWE BRAND, M. ALEKSANDRA BITNER, ALAN LOGAN, KAREM AZMY, GAIA CRIPPA, LUCIA ANGIOLINI, PATRICK COLIN, ERIKA GRIESSHABER, ELIZABETH M. HARPER, EMMA TADDEI RUGGIERO, VRENI HÄUSSERMANN Copyright (c) 2019 UWE BRAND, M. ALEKSANDRA BITNER, ALAN LOGAN, KAREM AZMY, GAIA CRIPPA, LUCIA ANGIOLINI, PATRICK COLIN, ERIKA GRIESSHABER, ELIZABETH M. HARPER, EMMA TADDEI RUGGIERO, VRENI HÄUSSERMANN http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12226 Thu, 24 Oct 2019 10:20:07 +0000 COMMENTS ON SOME SYRINGOTHYRIDOIDEA (BRACHIOPODA) FROM THE CARBONIFEROUS OF NORTH AFRICA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12228 <p>The type species of the spiriferinide genus <em>Histosyrinx</em> Termier &amp; Termier (Brachiopoda), namely <em>Histosyrinx vautrini</em> Termier &amp; Termier, is re-investigated in detail on the basis of its type material from the Tournaisian Marar Formation (Serdeles area, Murzuq Basin, Libya), including additional specimens from the same region, and from the Tournaisian of Algeria (Reggane Basin). The internal morphology of the ventral valve of <em>Histosyrinx vautrini</em> is particularly variable, notably concerning the development of the septal pillow, the subdelthyrial plate and the median septum. <em>Histosyrinx</em> can be easily distinguished from the genus <em>Septosyringothyris</em> Vandercammen by the absence of a true delthyrial plate and the lesser development of the median septum. <em>Histosyrinx</em> is also close to <em>Syringopleura</em> Schuchert, which is generally considered as a synonym of <em>Syringothyris</em> Winchell, by its ventral internal features (e.g. development of a septal pillow), but the dorsal internal morphology of the type species of Schuchert’s genus remains unknown. Thus, the relationships between both genera need to be investigated further. Specimens from the southern margin of the Tindouf Basin (Algeria), previously identified as Septosyringothyridinae? gen. indet. by Legrand-Blain in the 1970s, are fully illustrated here for the first time and referred to an unidentified genus of the subfamily Permasyrinxinae on the basis of the absence of syrinx.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> BERNARD MOTTEQUIN, GABRIELA A. CISTERNA Copyright (c) 2019 BERNARD MOTTEQUIN, GABRIELA A. CISTERNA http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12228 Fri, 25 Oct 2019 08:40:02 +0000 BRACHIOPOD ASSEMBLAGES OF THE <em>EURYDESMA</em> FAUNA IN GLACIAL- DEGLACIAL SEQUENCES FROM ARGENTINA AND AUSTRALIA https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12249 <p>The <em>Eurydesma</em> Fauna characterizes the Late Pennsylvanian-Permian glacial-postglacial sediments recorded in several Gondwanan basins during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA). Brachiopods, as one the most significant components of this fauna, are herein analyzed along with the associated bivalves, in two key sections from western and eastern Gondwana (Bonete Formation in the Sauce Grande Basin, eastern Argentina, and the Wasp Head Formation in the southern Sydney Basin, eastern Australia). The preliminary quantitative analysis indicates a high compositional similarity in both regions but occupancy exhibits important differences: brachiopod-dominated faunas can be found in eastern Australia (<em>Tomiopsis</em> and <em>Trigonotreta</em> are the most frequent taxa), and bivalve-dominated faunas are characteristic in eastern Argentina, where the brachiopods are poorly represented with the genera <em>Tivertonia</em> and <em>Tomiopsis</em>. In this locality, the development of r-strategy taxa, such as the bivalve <em>Eurydesma</em>, during the end of a glacial episode would adversely affect brachiopods’ abundance. This is also consistent with previous studies that indicate that brachiopods already showed a decrease in importance in Pennsylvanian communities from Argentina. Relative abundances of brachiopods and bivalves in both localities may reflect differences in the regional environmental conditions but, unfortunately, eastern Argentina lacks younger records to compare the faunal turnover with that of the Australian sequences. Despite the ecological structural differences identified (i.e. brachiopod:bivalve ratio), the postglacial <em>Eurydesma</em> fauna flourished in western and eastern Gondwana and it is striking that two faunas located on the opposite margins of this paleocontinent show such high compositional similarity during the development of a global postglacial event. This is particularly significant considering that the type of the basins (i.e. restricted vs open basins), biological features, paleoenvironmental conditions directly related to glacial dynamics, and also the diachronism of the transgression, can be controlling the composition of this fauna.</p> GABRIELA A. CISTERNA, ANDREA F. STERREN, GUANG R. SHI, KAREN HALPERN, DIEGO BALSEIRO Copyright (c) 2019 GABRIELA A. CISTERNA, ANDREA F. STERREN, GUANG R. SHI, KAREN HALPERN, DIEGO BALSEIRO http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://riviste.unimi.it/index.php/RIPS/article/view/12249 Mon, 28 Oct 2019 10:33:07 +0000