Itinera <p><strong>Rivista di filosofia e di teoria delle arti.&nbsp;</strong><strong>Nuova serie (</strong><strong>ISSN 2039-9251)</strong></p> <p><strong><br></strong>La rivista ospita articoli di estetica, filosofia morale, storia della filosofia, teoria delle arti e del teatro.</p> Università degli Studi di Milano it-IT Itinera 2039-9251 <p>Gli autori che pubblicano su questa rivista accettano le seguenti condizioni:</p> <p>1. Gli autori mantengono i diritti sulla loro opera e cedono alla rivista il diritto di prima pubblicazione dell'opera, contemporaneamente licenziata sotto una <a href="">Licenza Creative Commons - Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia</a> che permette ad altri di condividere l'opera indicando la paternità intellettuale e la prima pubblicazione su questa rivista.</p> <p>2. Gli autori possono aderire ad altri accordi di licenza non esclusiva per la distribuzione della versione dell'opera pubblicata (es. depositarla in un archivio istituzionale o pubblicarla in una monografia), a patto di indicare che la prima pubblicazione è avvenuta su questa rivista.</p> <p>3. Gli autori possono diffondere la loro opera online (es. in repository istituzionali o nel loro sito web) prima e durante il processo di submission, poiché può portare a scambi produttivi e aumentare le citazioni dell'opera pubblicata (Vedi The Effect of Open Access).</p> Colour for Philosophers: Introduction <p>«The ox becomes furious if a red cloth is shown to him, but the philosopher, who speaks of colour only in a general way, begins to rave». This is still true now: the philosophical discussion on colour is very lively. There is a debate within Anglo-American philosophy that has been going on for the past fifty years, and is still going on today, as is demonstrated by the imminent publication of the <em>Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Colour</em>, which we are happy to announce in this issue. Colour is something very familiar but, nevertheless, it is also a subject on which philosophers never cease to raise questions. Why?</p> Alice Barale Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 1 10 10.13130/2039-9251/13876 The steady pace of philosophy of colour <p>I outline five issues in philosophy of colour that deserve greater attention and provide skeletal frameworks for how future work on these topics could be carried out. The issues are: colour and metaphilosophy (§1), colour and artistic practice (§2), colour and virtual/augmented reality (§3), colour and imagination (§4), and colour and the predictive mind (§5). Some of these issues have been a focus of important recent works. Thus, colour conjoined with each of metaphilosophy, artistic practice and imagination have all been examined in at least a few recent publications – see below for references. It is clear, however, that these recent works are signals that there is much still to be done. By contrast, while at present there is a great deal of interest in the predictive mind, the intersection of colour and the predictive mind is vastly underexplored. This is despite the fact that the philosophy and science of colour are rather developed disciplines. Finally, while there have been some very important recent works on virtual and augmented reality, the significance of colour for these studies has yet to be examined. It is my hope that after reading this article readers are convinced not only that the philosophy of colour has a rich, recent history, but also a very bright future.</p> Derek Brown Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13877 Line, Colour, Drawing in Kant and Hegel <p>Kant and Hegel have diametrically opposed views concerning the relationship between colour and drawing. For Hegel colour is all; while for Kant drawing is central. Through an analysis of both these positions the conclusion that is drawn is that colour and drawing have a necessary interrelation. One cannot be thought other than in relation to reach other. Taken together they are integral to the development of a philosophy of art.</p> Andrew Benjamin Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13878 Synesthesia: Where does Color Exist? <p>Where does color exist? As a property of light in "red wavelengths," as a neural calculation by retinal photoreceptors, or as a calculation in the brain? The perceptual couplings of synesthesia, along with color constancy and colored shadows, suggest that color is not a property of objects: In order to be biologically useful within our environment of ever–changing illumination, the brain must assign stable colors to surfaces. Color exists only within the silent darkness of an individual skull.</p> <p>Richard E. Cytowic, MD MFA is Clinical Professor of Neurology at George Washington University, and the author most recently of “Synesthesia” and “Wednesday is Indigo Blue” (MIT Press).</p> Richard Cytowic Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13879 “Color azurei oscurissimi” Sfumature cabbalistiche in ‘Azriel di Gerona e Flavio Mitridate <p>The general topic of Colours and their symbolic significance in Kabbalah has been presented by Gershom Scholem in a well-known conference at Eranos. The present article concentrates on the quite eccentric representation of colours and their association to the ten Sefirot in the Sha’ar ha-Sho’el of ‘Azriel of Gerona, one the early Kabbalists who lived in Catalunya in the 13th century. Since the Sha‘ar ha-Sho’el, an introduction to the basic tenets of Kabbalah in the form of a philosophical dialogue, has been translated into Latin in 1486 by the converted Jew Flavius Mithridates for Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the translation is used as a reflection of the Hebrew original in order to analyze the chromatic denominations chosen by the translator in order to render a mental picture of the colours he found described in the text with the additional difficulty that some of the colours mentioned by ‘Azriel are not univocally understood in Jewish tradition. The elusive character of colours in general is here perceived through the glass of a transcultural and transreligious linguistic rendering which, in the best event, can help interpret the original, and in the worse, can lead us to appreciate the difficulty of the task and its intrinsic reasons.</p> Saverio Campanini Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13880 Two Poems on Colour <p>Christopher Norris is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at Cardiff University. He worked on literary criticism, on the question of realism and antirealism in philosophy, on Derrida and deconstructionism and on the philosophy of science. In the past few years he has also authored several philosophical poems. In this issue we present two poems he wrote that are dedicated to color.</p> Christopher Norris Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13881 For the Tempus-fugitives: Christopher Norris on the Philosophy (and Poetry) of Colour <p>Born in 1947, Christopher Norris is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at Cardiff University. He worked first on literary criticism, then on the question of realism and antirealism in philosophy (as a strong adversary of antirealism), on Derrida and deconstructionism and, more recently, on the philosophy of science. In the past few years he has also authored several philosophical poems.</p> <p>In this issue we present two poems he wrote that are dedicated to color. Color is a recurrent theme in Norris’ poetry. Why? And why does Norris choose, for nearly ten years past, to mainly use poems for his philosophical investigations? Is there a link between his interest on color and this choice he has made?</p> <p>Moreover: Norris was always a strong adversary of antirealism and the extreme consequences of the “linguistic turn”. Isn’t there a contradiction between this philosophical position and the importance he gives to poetry? Perhaps color can give us a key.</p> Alice Barale Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13882 La fotografia a colori. Tra descrittivismo ed espressività negli scritti di Giuseppe Turroni <p>This text aims to rediscover the studies of Giuseppe Turroni, an important Italian critic whose research activity, had focused particularly on photography and cinema. Active expecially in the central decades of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, Turroni was the first Italian author to have pointed out the need to constitute a photographic criticism and the importance of studying photography also from an aesthetic point of view. Particularly, this text traces the main guidelines of Turroni's thought about panchromatic photography, the uses that were made of it in the decades between the 19<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries, and, above all, focuses attention on the expressiveness and communicativeness of this medium in contemporary society.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Martina Conti Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13883 Colore solo. Le valenze cromatiche di “painterly” e “post painterly” nell’estetica di Clement Greenberg <p>This essay aims to analyse the importance of colour in Clement Geenberg’s theory of art, and its relevance on modernist ontology of pictorial image. It focuses in particular on the shift from the notion of “painterly” to the notion of “post painterly” in the greenbergian aesthetic vision of painting. Firstly, it deals with a recollection of Greenberg’s appropriation of the very concept of “painterly” from Heinrich Wölfflin’s Principles of Art History. Then, it provides an articulated explanation of Greenberg’s arguments on “painterly” and “post painterly”, in respect of their implications with pure colour. Finally, it stresses Greenberg’s troublesome concern with objecthood in art, referring the problematic threshold between monochromatic painting, blank canvases as works of art and a “non painterly” perspective on pictorial images.</p> Marcello Sessa Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13884 La spazialità del colore nell’opera di James Turrell. Una prospettiva ecologica sul carattere cromatico della luce <p>James Turrell’s installation Sight Unseen can provide useful elements concerning the philosophical discourse on colors. The artwork shows how the physical nature of the light allows the environmental diffusion of colors. Meant as character of light itself, the color organizes and disposes the perception of the space explored by spectators. I assume an ecological aesthetic perspective to understand the perceptual phenomena that affect the senses of the spectators’ living body and broaden the current physicalist and representationalist models emerged within theories of color.</p> Gabriele Gambaro Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13885 REVIEW D. Brown, F. Macpherson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Colour, Routledge, London 2020, pp. 496, ISBN 9780415743037 <p>«Why has the examination of many different aspects of colour been a prominent feature in philosophy, to such an extent that the topic is worthy of a handbook?». This is the question that opens the editors’ introduction to <em>The Routledge Handbook of Colour</em>, whose imminent publication we are happy to announce here.</p> Alice Barale Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13886 Corpo, sensi e realtà nel teatro italiano del nuovo millennio <p>The article proposes a study of the Italian theater in the new millennium through the revaluation of the body, of the senses and of the reality. If the main thrust is the presence of the body, the first part studies particularly the definition and the analysis of a language-body, what it is recovered in <em>La madre</em> (2010) of Mimmo Borrelli, methodologically privileging a textual analysis. The second part studies the theatrical relationships, analyzing a particular typology of sensory dramaturgy in the <em>Teatro del Lemming</em>. Beginning from these analyses and from a rapids review of other experiences, the article concludes on the attempt to define what "reality." means today for the theater and to theatre.</p> Paola Ranzini Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13887 Il naso e il triangolo. Potere delle immagini, immagini del potere <p>The essay attempts to analyze the relationship between power and image. The writing starts with the studies of Alberto Giacometti between 1956 and 1961 for the portrait of the Japanese philosopher Isaku Yanaihara. Giacometti says that in this experience one of his tasks is grasping the triangular and pyramidal shape of the portrayed nose. This image, reminiscent of Egyptian pyramids as graves and representations of the pharaoh’s power, becomes vitalist shape, hanging between life and death. Power, required to be efficient, deals with what is subject to its force; its exertion doesn’t move, it can protect but doesn’t save; it hardly gives way to nothing. Power aims at simplification, while art amplifies existence complexity and variety. Art can allows itself a wait and consents to unproductiveness, it strives to bring life into death. Works of art give a picture of power that is not afraid of generating and destroying itself to be able to start again. Works of art have to disown every seeming final goal to avoid their imprisonment into the shapes produced by the desire itself.</p> Giovanni Ferrario Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13888 Freaks: tra anormalità e deviazione. Nascite mostruose e fenomeni umani dall’uomo-gallina al circo di Barnum <p>The essay focuses on the theme of natural teratology, or the study of deformities, and above all on the positive figure of the freak, which I am going to analyze from a social and spectacular point of view. The analysis will go on probing the territories of the bizarre and the marvelous as presented by the Great American Museum of Barnum.</p> Marina Mascherini Copyright (c) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 19 10.13130/2039-9251/13889