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Toxoplasmosis is a food zoonosis caused by the gondii Toxoplasma, a parasite that completes its life cycle within the cells of the hosting organism.  Toxoplasmosis represents an emerging disease and its diffusion is closely linked to lack of hygienic conditions, eating habits and hot-humid climates that favour the spreading of the parasite in the environment.  The majority of people who contract the disease have no symptoms and therefore do not require any therapy.  On the other hand, however, in immunosuppressed persons, in pregnant women and in infants with congenital infection, therapeutic treatment is of the utmost importance in order to avoid severe complications or even death. Prevention represents the most effective weapon against this zoonosis, and requires a multidisciplinary approach combining different professional categories.  This approach - already identified in the mid nineteenth century by the German pathologist Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow, strong believer in the absence of a clear cut-off between animal and human medicine – was reinforced by the American veterinarian Calvin W. Schwabe, who created the term “One health – One medicine”.  According to Schwabe “health” assumes a broader meaning that includes and bonds in an indissoluble way the human, the animal and the environmental, all part of a single ecosystem

La toxoplasmosi è una zoonosi alimentare, causata dal Toxoplasma gondii, un parassita che compie il suo ciclo vitale all’interno delle cellule dell’organismo che lo ospita. La toxoplasmosi rappresenta una patologia emergente e la sua diffusione è strettamente legata alle condizioni igieniche carenti, alle abitudini alimentari ed al clima caldo-umido, che favorisce la persistenza del parassita nell’ambiente. La maggior parte delle persone che la contraggono risulta asintomatica, pertanto non necessita di terapia. Invece, nei soggetti immunocompromessi, nelle donne in gravidanza e nei neonati con infezione congenita, il trattamento terapeutico è fondamentale, per evitare gravi complicanze o addirittura la morte. La prevenzione, che rappresenta la migliore arma per combattere questa zoonosi, richiede un approccio multidisciplinare che riunisce diverse categorie professionali. Questo approccio, già individuato nella metà dell’800 dal patologo tedesco Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow, sostenitore dell’assenza di una linea di demarcazione netta tra la medicina animale e quella umana, un secolo più tardi fu rafforzato dal medico veterinario statunitense Calvin W. Schwabe, che coniò il termine di “One health - One medicine”. Secondo Schwabe la “salute” assume un significato più ampio, che comprende e lega in modo indissolubile quella umana, quella animale e quella dell’ambiente in quanto parte di un unico ecosistema.

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