Il gesto simbolico delle mani alzate: a proposito di due epitaffi in greco dalla Sicilia

Autori

  • Antonietta Brugnone Università degli Studi di Palermo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.13130/2037-4488/15613

Parole chiave:

Iscrizioni funerarie, Sicilia, iconografia delle mani alzate

Abstract

L’articolo, a partire dall’analisi di due iscrizioni siciliane, analizza il gesto delle mani alzate in epitaffi funerari greci e latini, nell’arco temporale che si estende tra il II sec. a.C. e il III-IV d.C. La rappresentazione delle mani alzate, in contesti funerari è spesso associata, in Grecia e a Roma, alla richiesta della vendetta divina rivolta, dai proprietari della sepoltura, nei confronti di assassini rimasti impuniti. Lo studio, inoltre, propone un’organizzazione tipologica degli epitaffi con rappresentazione delle mani alzate, con una particolare attenzione per le implicazioni religiose del gesto sia in ambito greco-romano, sia in ambito giudaico.

 

Starting from the analysis of two Sicilian epigraphs, the article deals with the gesture of raised hands in Greek and Latin funerary epitaphs, between II B.C. and III-IV A.D. In Greece and Rome, the representation of raised hands, in funerary contexts is often associated with the request for divine revenge addressed by the owners of the burial, against the unpunished murderers. Moreover, the contribution proposes a typological organization of epitaphs with representation of raised hands, focusing in particular on the religious implications of the gesture both in the Greco-Roman and in the Jewish context.

Riferimenti bibliografici

BENICHOU-SAFAR 2004 = H. BENICHOU-SAFAR, Le geste dit “de l’orant” sur les steles puniques de Carthage, in El mundo funerario. Actas del III Seminario Internacional sobre Temas Fenicios, Alicante 2004, pp. 99-116.

BERNAND 1992 = E. BERNAND, Inscriptions grecques d’Egypte et de Nubie au Musée du Louvre, Paris 1992.

BITTO 2012 = I. BITTO, Un nuovo epitaffio da Messina, in A.M. CORDA, PIERGIORGIO FLORIS (a cura di), Ruri mea vixi colendo. Studi in onore di F. Porrà, Ortacesus (CA) 2012, pp. 67-75.

BJÖRCK 1938 = G. BJÖRCK, Der Fluch des Christen Sabinus. Papyrus Upsaliensis 8, Uppsala 1938.

CHANIOTIS 2004 = A. CHANIOTIS, Under the watchful eyes of the gods: divine justice in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor, in S. COLVIN (ed.), The Graeco-Roman East. Politics, Culture, Society. Yale Classical Studies 31, Cambridge 2004, pp. 1-43.

CHANIOTIS 2009 = A. CHANIOTIS, Ritual performances of divine justice: the epigraphy of confession, atonement, and exaltation in Roman Asia Minor, in H.M. COTTON et Alii (eds), From Hellenismus to Islam, Cambridge 2009, pp. 115-153.

CILIBERTO – MAINARDIS 2005 = F. CILIBERTO, F. MAINARDIS, Mani alzate, mains levées, erhobene Hände. A proposito di un sarcofago della Collezione di Francesco di Toppo, in Akten des VIII. Internationalen Colloquiums über Probleme des provinzialrömischen Kunstschaffens, Zagreb 2003. Religion und Mythos als Anregung für die provinzialrömische Plastik, Zagreb 2005, pp. 175-184.

COUILLOUD 1974 = M.TH. COUILLOUD, Les monuments funéraires de Rhénée. EAD XXX, Paris 1974.

CUMONT 1923 = F. CUMONT, Il sole vindice dei delitti ed il simbolo delle mani alzate, in “MemPontAc”, N.S. I, 1923, pp. 65-80.

CUMONT 1926-1927 = F. CUMONT, Nuovi epitaffi col simbolo della preghiera al dio vindice, in “RendPontAc”, S. III, V, pp. 69-78.

CUMONT 1933 = F. CUMONT, Deux Monuments des cultes solaires, in “Syria”, XIV, 1933, pp. 381-395.

DAIN 1933 = A. DAIN, Inscriptions grecques du Musée du Louvre, les textes inédites, Paris 1933.

DI STEFANO 1984 = C.A. DI STEFANO, Stele funerarie, in Lilibeo. Testimonianze archeologiche dal IV sec. a.C. al V sec. d.C., Palermo 1984, pp. 165-166.

DREW-BEAR – NAOUR 1990 = T. DREW-BEAR, C. NAOUR, Divinités de Phrygie, in ANRW, II, 18, Berlin 1990.

FIRATLI 1964 = N. FIRATLI, Les stèles funéraires de Byzance gréco-romaine, avec l’édition et l’index commenté des épitaphes par L. Robert, Bibliothèque archéologique et historique de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie d’Istanbul XV, Paris 1964.

FORSEN – SIRONEN 1989 = B. FORSEN, E. SIRONEN, Zur Simbolik von dagerstellten Händen, in “Arctos” 23, 1989, pp. 55-66.

GOUNAROPOULOU – HATZOPOULOS 1998 = L. GOUNAROPOULOU, M.B. HATZOPOULOS, Ἐπιγραφὲς Κάτω Μακεδονίας. 1: Ἐπιγραφὲς Βεροίας, Athens 1998.

GRAF 2007 = F. GRAF, Untimely Death, Wirtchcraft, and Divine Vengeance. A reasoned Epigraphical Catalog, in “ZPE”, 162, pp. 139-150.

GRANINO CECERE 1987 = M.G. GRANINO CECERE, in S. PANCIERA (a cura di), La collezione epigrafica dei Musei Capitolini. Inediti - Revisioni - Contributi al riordino, Roma 1987.

GUARDUCCI 1974 = M. GUARDUCCI, Epigrafia greca, III, Roma 1974.

HEBERDEY – KALINKA 1897 = R. HEBERDEY, E. KALINKA, Bericht über zwei Reisen im südwestlichen Kleinasien aus geführtim Auftrageder kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, in “DAWW”, Phil.hist. Classe, 45, 1897, pp. 1-56.

JONES 2010 = C.P. JONES, New Heroes in Antiquity: from Achilles to Antinoos, Cambridge (MA) 2010.

JORDAN 1979 = D.R. JORDAN, An Appeal to the Sun for Vengeance (Inscriptions de Délos, 2533), in “BCH”, 103, 1979, pp. 521-525.

JORDAN 2002 = D.R. JORDAN, Une prière de vengeance sur une tablette de plomb à Délos, in “RA”, 2002, pp. 55-59.

LAGOGIANNI-GEORGAKARAKOS 1998 = M. LAGOGIANNI-GEORGAKARAKOS, Corpus signorum imperii romani. Griechenland III,1. Die Grabdenkmäler mit Porträts aus Makedonien, Athens 1998.

LAMBRECHTS – BOGAERT 1969 = P. LAMBRECHTS, R. BOGAERT, Asclépios, archigalle pessinontien de Cybèle, in J. BIBAUW (éd.), Hommages à M. Renard, II. Coll. Latomus 102, Bruxelles 1969, pp. 404-414.

LATTIMORE 1942 = R. LATTIMORE, Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs, Urbana (IL) 1942.

LEMAIRE 1994 = A. LEMAIRE, Deux nouvelles stèles funéraires araméennes de Cilicie orientale, in “EA”, 22, 1994, pp. 91-98.

MANNI PIRAINO 1984 = M.T. MANNI PIRAINO, in Lilibeo. Testimonianze archeologiche dal IV sec. a.C. al V sec. d.C., Palermo 1984, pp. 175-179.

MANNI PIRAINO 1987 = M.T. MANNI PIRAINO, Marsala, in “Kokalos”, 33, 1987, pp. 25-26.

MAREK 1993 = CH. MAREK, Städt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord-Galatia, Istanbuler Forschungen 39, Tübingen 1993.

MAREK 2000 = CH. MAREK, Der Höchste, Beste, Grösste, Allmächtige Gott. Inschriften aus Kleinasien, in “EA”, 32, 2000, pp. 129-146.

MITCHELL 1982 = S. MITCHELL, Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor, II. The Inscriptions of North Galatia. The Ankara District, 2, BAR 135, Oxford 1982.

MORANT 1999 = M.-J. MORANT, Mains levées, mains supines, a propos d’une base funéraire de Kadyanda (Lycie), in “Ktema”, 24, 1999, pp. 289-294.

MOUTERDE 1925 = R.P. MOUTERDE, Inscriptions grecques conservées à l’Institut français de Damas, in “Syria”, VI, 1925, pp. 215-252.

NAOUR 1976 = CH. NAOUR, Inscriptions et reliefs de Kibyratide et de Cabalide, in “ZPE”, 22, 1976, pp. 109-136.

OLSHAUSEN 1987 = E. OLSHAUSEN, Griechische Grabinschriften der Kaiserzeit im Museum von Samsun, in “EA”, 9, 1987, pp. 81-95.

PALAGIA 2011 = O. PALAGIA, Limestone reliefs with raised hands from Messene, in O. PALAGIA, H.R. GOETTE (eds), Sailing to Classical Greece.Papers on Greek Art, Archaeology and Epigraphy presented to Petros Themelis, Barnsley 2011, pp. 62-69.

PERDRIZET 1914 = P. PERDRIZET, Némésis, in “BCH”, XXXVIII, 1914, pp. 89-100.

PEREA – MONTERO 2000 = S. PEREA, S. MONTERO, La misteriosa inscripción hispana a Zeus, Serapis y Iao: su relación con la magia y con la teología oracolare del Apolo de Klaros, in G. PACI (a cura di), Ἐπιγραφαί. Miscellanea epigrafica in onore di Lidio Gasperini, II, Tivoli (Roma), 2000, pp. 711-736.

PETZL 1992 = G. PETZL, Ein fruhes Zeugnis für den Hosios-Dikaios-Kult (Ricl Nr. 103), in “EA”, 20, 1992, pp. 143-147.

PFUHL – MÖBIUS 1979 = E. PFUHL, H. MÖBIUS, Die ostgriechischen Grabreliefs, I, Mainz 1979.

PFUHL – MÖBIUS 1979 = E. PFUHL, H. MÖBIUS, Die ostgriechischen Grabreliefs, II, mit Indices und Konkordanzen von G. JÖHRENS, Mainz 1979.

PIPPIDI 1976-1977 = D.M. PIPPIDI, Tibi commendo. À propos d’une inscription fragmentaire publiée par Pârvan, in “RSA”, 6-7, 1976-1977, pp. 37-44.

RICL 1991 = M. RICL, Hosios kai Dikaios. Première partie: Catalogue des inscriptions, in “EA”, 18, 1991, pp. 1-70.

RICL 1992 = M. RICL, Hosios kai Dikaios. Seconde partie: Analyse, in “EA”, 19, 1992, pp. 71-103.

RICL 1994 = M. RICL, Inscriptions votives inédites au Musée d’Eskiṣehir, in “Živa Antika. Antiquité Vivante”, 44, 1-2, 1994, pp. 157-174.

RICL 2008 = M. RICL, Newly published and Unpublished Inscriptions for Hosios and Dikaios and their Contribution to the Study of the Cult, Asia Minor Studien 65, Bonn 2008, pp. 563-579.

ROBERT 1935 = L. ROBERT, Villes de l’Asie Mineure, Paris 1935.

ROBERT 1936 = L. ROBERT, Collection Frohener, I. Inscriptions grecques, Paris 1936.

ROBERT 1971 = L. ROBERT, Les gladiateurs dans l’Orient grec, Amsterdam 1971.

ROSANOVA 1955 = N.P. ROSANOVA, Inscriptions grecques des Musées de Temriouk et de Yalta, in “VDI”, 51, 1955, pp. 173-176.

SALVO 2012 = I. SALVO, Sweet Revenge. Emotional Factors in ‘Prayers for Justice’, in A. CHANIOTIS (ed.), Sources and Methods for the Study of Emotions in the Greek World, Stuttgart 2012, pp. 235-266.

SAYAR 1998 = M.H. SAYAR, Perinthos-Herakleia (Marmara Ereglisi) und Umgebung. Geschichte, Testimonien, Griechische und Lateinische Inschriften, Denkschr. Wien, phil.-hist. Kl. 269, Wien 1998.

STRUBBE 1991 = J. STRUBBE, Cursed be he that moves my bones, in C.A. FARAONE, D. OBBINK (eds), Magika Hiera. Ancient Greek Magic and Religion, New York-Oxford 1991, pp. 33-59.

STRUBBE 1997 = J. STRUBBE, Ἀραὶ ἐπιτύμβιοι. Imprecations against Desecrators of the Grave in the Greek Epithaphs of Asia Minor. A Catalogue, Inschriften griech. Städte aus Kleinasien 52, Bonn 1997.

SWAIN 1996 = S. SWAIN, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World, AD 50-250, Oxford 1996.

TATAKI 1988 = A.B. TATAKI, Ancient Beroea. Prosopography and Society, Athens 1988.

VAN STRATEN 1981 = F.T. VAN STRATEN, Gifts for the Gods, in H.S.

VERSNEL (ed.), Faith, Hope and Worship. Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World, Leyden 1981, pp. 65-151.

VENTO 2000 = M. VENTO, Le stele dipinte di Lilibeo, Marsala 2000.

VERSNEL 1991 = H.S. VERSNEL, Beyond Cursing: The Appeal to Justice in Judicial Prayers, in C.A. FARAONE, D. OBBINK (eds), Magika Hiera. Ancient Greek Magic and Religion, NewYork-Oxford 1991, pp. 60-106.

VERSNEL 1998 = H.S. VERSNEL, (… and any other part of the entire body there may be …). An Essay on Anatomical Curses. I Instrumental Curses, in F. GRAF (hrsg.), Ansichten griechischer Rituale, Geburtstags Symposium für W. Burkert, Leipzig 1998, pp. 219-267.

VERSNEL 1999 = H.S. VERSNEL, κολάσαι τοὺς ἡμᾶς τοιούτους ἡδέως βλέποντες. Punish those who rejoice in our misery. On Curse Texts and ‘Schadenfreude’, in D.R. JORDAN, H. MONTGOMERY, E. THOMASSEN (eds), The World of Ancient Magic, Papers from the first International Samson Eitrem Seminar at the Norwegian Institute at Athens 4-8 May 1997, Papers from the Norwegian Institute at Athens 4, Bergen 1999, pp. 125-162.

VERSNEL 2010 = H.S. VERSNEL, Prayers for Justice, East and West. New Finds and Publications Since 1990, in R.L. GORDON, F. MARCO SIMÓN (eds), Magical Practice in the Latin West, Papers from the International Conference held at the University of Zaragoza, 30 Sept. – 1st Oct. 2005, Leiden 2010, pp. 275-354.

WAELKENS 1986 = M. WAELKENS, Die kleinasiatischen Türsteine. Typologische und epigraphische Untersuchungen der kleinasiatischen Grabreliefs mit Scheintür, Mainz am Rhein 1986.

WILSON 2005 = R.J.A. WILSON, La sopravvivenza dell’influenza punica in Sicilia durante il dominio romano, in A. SPANÒ GIAMMELLARO (a cura di), Atti del V Congresso Internazionale di Studi fenici e punici, II, Palermo 2005, pp. 907-917.

ZAVETTIERI 2017 = G. ZAVETTIERI, Le epigrafi, in G. TIGANO (a cura di), Da Zancle a Messina 2016. Nuovi dati di archeologia urbana, Palermo 2017, pp. 167-176.

##submission.downloads##

Pubblicato

2021-05-20

Fascicolo

Sezione

Contributi