SIDELINED SEASHELLS: REAPPRAISAL OF THE MIDDLE TRIASSIC AMMONOIDS OF SAMOBOR AND ŽUMBERAK MTS. (NORTH-WESTERN CROATIA) AND THEIR SYSTEMATICS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54103/2039-4942/19942

Abstract

Basinal Middle Triassic successions of the Samobor and Žumberak Mts. (north-western Croatia) have historically produced fossils of ammonoids. These finds have, however, largely been neglected in the later literature. This paper describes and redescribes a large collection of ammonoids, most of which were collected by previous researchers throughout the 20th century. Aside from the detailed taxonomic descriptions and revisions, several taxa previously unknown from these localities were identified. Of the species whose holotypes were designated at the Gregruć Breg locality, some are found to be dubious, with validity of other remaining inconclusive and a single taxon, Eoprotrachyceras dorae comb. nov., being treated as valid. Certain Middle Triassic ammonoid genera may also require future comprehensive revisions. A preliminary, modified ammonoid zonal/sub-zonal scheme for the Ladinian of the Tethyan province is proposed, to be inclusive of most of the data from the literature. The need for improvement of the subdivision of this stage is recognized. Based on ammonoids, condensed red nodular limestones of the Gregurić Breg locality (Samobor Mts.) most likely span the Avisianum subzone (upper Illyrian) – Longobardicum subzone (“middle” Longobardian), indicating that subsidence began in the earlier part of the Illyrian. At Mt. Žumberak, scant ammonoid remains indicate that the upper, limestone-rich portion of this succession spans at least the Avisianum subzone (upper Illyrian) – Longobardicum subzone (“middle” Longobardian), but additional data is needed for drawing more robust conclusions. Overall, the timing of basinal deposition is well correlated between Gregurić Breg and Žumberak localities (lower Illyrian – upper Longobardian). 

Author Biographies

FRAN VIDAKOVIĆ, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102A, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Graduate student at the Department of Geology.

ROBERT ŠAMARIJA, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102A, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Graduate student at the Department of Geology.

JASENKA SREMAC, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac 102A, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Professor (retired) at the Department of Geology; PhD.

DRAŽEN JAPUNDŽIĆ, Croatian Natural History Museum, Demetrova 1, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Senior curator at the Department of Geology and Paleontology, Croatian Natural History Museum.

References

Arkell W.J. (1957) – Introduction to Mesozoic Ammonoidea. In: Moore R.C. (ed.) – Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part L, Mollusca 4, Cephalopoda-Ammonoidea: 80-100. GSA and University of Kansas Press.

Arthaber G. (1915) – Die Trias von Bithynien (Anatolien). – Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orients, 27 (2–3): 85–206.

Assereto R. (1963) - Il Trias in Lombardia (Studi geologici e paleontologici) IV. Fossili dell’Anisico superiore della Val Camonica (1). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia, 69 (1): 3–123.

Babić Lj., Gušić I., Krystyn L. & Zupanić J. (1979) – Starost i fosili Lipovac-vapnenca (trijas) kod Samobora, zapadno od Zagreba. Geološki vjesnik, 31: 21-35.

Balini M. (1992) - Lardaroceras gen. n., a new late Anisian ammonoid genus from the Prezzo limestone (Southern Alps). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 98 (1): 3-28.

Balini M. (1994) - The Triassic cephalopods of the Curioni collection housed in the “Servizio Geologico Nazionale”: historical and taxonomical reappraisal. Bollettino del Servizio Geologico d’Italia, 111: 55-76.

Balini M. (1998) - Taxonomy, stratigraphy and phylogeny of the new genus Lanceoptychites (Ammonoidea, Anisian). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 104 (2): 143–166.

Balini M., Krystyn L., & Torti, V. (1998) - In search of the Ladinian-Carnian boundary: perspectives from Spiti (Tethys Himalaya). Albertiana, 21: 26-32.

Balini M., Germani D., Nicora A. & Rizzi, E. (2000) - Ladinian/Carnian ammonoids and conodonts from the classic Schilpario – Pizzo Camino area (Lombardy): Revaluation of the Biostratigraphic support to chronostratigraphy and paleogeography. Rivisita Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 106 (1): 19-58.

Balini M., Jurkovšek B., Kolar-Jurkovšek T. (2006) - New Ladinan Ammonoids from Mt. Svilaja (External Dinarides, Croatia). Rivisita Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 112 (3): 383–395.

Balini M., Lucas S.G., Jenks J.F. & Spielmann J.A. (2010) - Triassic ammonoid biostratigraphy: an overwiew. In: Lucas S.G. (ed.) - The Triassic Timescale. Geological Society of London, Special Pubblication, 334: 221-262.

Bender H. (1970) - Der Nachweis von Unter-Anis ("Hydasp") auf der Insel Chios. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques, 19: 412-464.

Beyrich, E. (1867) - Über einige Cephalopoden aus dem Muschelkalk der Alpen und über verwandte Arten. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 2: 105–149.

Blendinger W. (1991) – Upper Triassic (Norian) cephalopod limestones of the Hallstatt-type, Oman. Sedimentology, 38: 223-242.

Böckh J. (1872) - A Bakony déli részének földtani viszonyai. I. A Magyar Királyi Földtani Intézet Évkönyve 2 (2): 31–166.

Böckh J. (1873) - Die geologischen Verhältnisse des südlichen Theiles des Bakony, I. Theil. Palaeontologischer Anhang. Mittheilungen an dem Jahrbuch der ungarischen Geologischen Anstalt, 2: 155-180.

Brack P. & Rieber H. (1986) - Stratigraphy and Ammonoids of the lower Buchenstein Beds of the Brescian Prealps and Giudicarie and their significance for the Anisian/Ladinian boundary. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 79: 181–225.

Brack P. & Rieber H. (1993) - Towards a better definition of the Anisian/Ladinian boundary: New biostratigraphic data and correlations of boundary sections from the Southern Alps. Eclogae Geolologicae Helvetiae, 86: 415–527.

Brack P. & Rieber H. (2003) – Proposals for the GSSP for the base of the Ladinian Stage: Comment. Albertiana, 28: 54-55.

Brack, P. & Rieber, H. (2019) - Chieseiceras dolomiticum n.sp. (Ammonoidea) and its significance for the calibration of the Triassic platform interior stratigraphy at Latemar (Southern Alps, Italy). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 138: 27-35.

Brack P., Rieber H. & Mundil R. (1995) - The Anisian-Ladinian boundary interval at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Italy): I. Summary and new results on ammonoid horizons and radiometric age dating. Albertiana, 15: 45-56.

Brack P., Rieber H. & Nicora A. (2003) - The Global Stratigraphic Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic). A proposal for the GSSP at the base of the Curionii Zone in the Bagolino section (Southern Alps, Northern Italy). Albertiana, 28: 13-25.

Brack P., Rieber B., Nicora A. & Mundil R. (2005) - The Global boundry Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ladinian Stage (Middle Triassic) at Bagolino (Southern Alps, Northern Italy) and its implications for the Triassic time scale. Episodes, 28 (4): 233–244.

Brack P., Rieber H., Mundil R., Blendinger W. & Maurer F. (2007) - Geometry and chronology of growth and drowning of Middle Triassic carbonate platforms (Cernera and Bivera/Clapsavon) in the Southern Alps (northern Italy). Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 100: 327–347.

Broglio Loriga C., Cirilli S., De Zanche V., di Bari D., Gianolla P., Laghi M.F., Lowrie W., Manfrin S., Mastandrea A., Mietto P., Muttoni C., Neri C., Posenato C., Rechichi M.C., Rettori R. & Roghi G. (1999) - The Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen Section (Dolomites, Italy): a candidate Global Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Carnian stage. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 105 (1): 37-78.

Bucher, H. (1989) - Lower Anisian Ammonoids from the northern Humboldt Range (northwestern Nevada, USA) and their bearing upon the Lower-Middle Triassic boundary. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 82 (3): 945–1002.

Bychkov Y.M., Dagys A.S., Efimova A.F. & Polubotko I.V. (1976) - Atlas of Triassic Fauna and Flora of the Northeast USSR. Nedra, Moscow: 193 pp. [in Russian].

Casati P. & Gnaccolini M. (1967) - Geologia delle Alpi Orobie occidentali. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 73, pp. 25–162.

Celarc B., Goričan Š. & Kolar-Jurkovšek T. (2013) - Middle Triassic carbonate-platform break-up and formation of small-scale half-grabens (Julian and Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenia). Facies, 59: 583–610.

Chen Y., Krystyn L., Orchard M.J., Lai X. & Richoz S. (2015) - A review of the evolution, biostratigraphy, provincialism and diversity of Middle and early Late Triassic conodonts. Papers in Palaeontology, 2 (2): 235–263.

Chen Y., Krystyn L., Orchard M.J., Lai X. & Richoz S. (2016) – Reply to comments on: A review of the evolution, biostratigraphy, provincialism and diversity of Middle and early Late Triassic conodonts. Papers in Palaeontology, 2 (3): 457-461.

Dagys A.S. & Weitschat W. (1993) – Extensive intraspecific variation in a Triassic ammonoid from Siberia. Lethaia, 26: 113-121.

Đaković M.R. (2018) – Stratigrafija Trijaskih Formacija sa amonitima između Virpazara i Bara (Crna Gora). Doctoral thesis, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, 238 pp [in Serbian with English abstract].

De Lorenzo G. (1896) - Fossili del Trias medio di Lagonegro. Palaeontographia Italica, 2: 113–148.

De Toni A. (1913) - Illustrazione della fauna triasica di Valdepena (Cadore). Memorie dell' Istituto Geologico della R. Universita di Padova, 2: 113–194.

De Zanche V., Gianolla P., Manfrin S., Mietto P. & Roghi G. (1995) - A Middle Triassic Back-stepping Carbonate Platform in the Dolomites (Italy): Sequence Stratigraphy and Biochronostratigraphy. Memorie di Scienze Geologiche, 47: 135-155.

De Zanche V. & Mietto P. (1986) - Stratigrafia delle “Zwischenbildungen” (Triassico medio) nei dintorni di Trento. Memorie di Scienze Geologiche, 38: 479-488.

De Zanche V., Gianolla P., Mietto P., Siorpaes C. & Vail P.R. (1993) - Triassic sequence stratigraphy in the Dolomites (Italy). Memorie di Scienze Geologiche, 45: 1-27.

Diener K. (1899) – Mitteilungern über einige Cephalopodensuiten aus der Trias des südlichen Bakony. Resultate der wissenschaftlichen Erforschung des Balatonsees, 1, Anh.: Palaeontologie der Umgebung des Balatonsees, 3 (1): 1-22.

Diener K. (1900) - Die triadische Cephalopodenfauna der Schichlinghöhe bei Hallstatt. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich Ungarns und des Orients, 8: 3–42.

Diener K. (1907) - The fauna of the Himalayan Muschelkalk. Palaeontographica Indica, 5 (2): 1–140.

Diener K. (1908) – Ladinic, Carnic and Noric Faunae of Spiti. Palaeontographica Indica, 5 (3): 1-157.

Fantini Sestini N. (1994) - The Ladinian ammonoids from Calcare di Esino of Val Parina (Bergamasc Alps, Northern Italy). Pt. 1. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 100: 227–284.

Fantini Sestini N. (1996) - The Ladinian ammonoids from Calcare di Esino of Val Parina (Bergamasc Alps, Northern Italy). Pt. 2. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 102: 211–226.

Frech F. & Renz C. (1908) - Neue Triasfunde auf Hydra und in der Argolis. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Beilage-Band, 25: 443–466.

Frech F. (1903) - Neue Cephalopoden aus den Buchensteiner, Wengener und Raibler Schichten des südlichen Bakony. Resultate der wissenschaftlichen Erforschung des Balatonsees, 1, Anh.: Palaeontologie der Umgebung des Balatonsees, 3 (4): 1–71.

Gaetani M. (ed.) (1993) - Anisian/Ladinian boundary field workshop, Southern Alps – Balaton Highlands, 27 June – 4 July 1993. I.U.G.S. Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy, Milano, 118 pp.

Gamsjäger B. (1982) - Systematik und Phylogenie der obertriadischen Cladiscitidae, Zittel 1884 (Ammonoidea). Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 122: 1-72.

Germani D. (1997) - New data on ammonoids and biostratigraphy of the classical Spathian Kçira section (lower Triassic, Albania). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 103 (3): 267-292.

Gianolla P., De Zanche V. & Mietto P. (1998) - Triassic Sequence Stratigraphy in the Southern Alps (Northern Italy). In: de Graciansky P.C., Jacquin T. & Vail P.R. (eds.) - Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins: 719-747. S.E.P.M. Special Publication, 60.

Goričan Š., Halamić J., Grgasović T. & Kolar-Jurkovšek T. (2005) - Stratigraphic evolution of Triassic arc-backarc system sin northwestern Croatia. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 176 (1): 3–22.

Gorjanović-Kramberger D. (1894): Geologija gore Samoborske i Žumberačke. Rad Jugoslavenske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti, Zagreb, 82 pp.

Goy A. & Pérez-López A. (1996) – Presencia de cefalópodos del tránsito Anisiense-Ladiniense en las facies Muschelkalk de la Zona Subbética (Cordillera Bética). Geogaceta 20 (1): 183-186.

Goy A. (1995) - Ammonoideos del Triásico Medio de España: Bioestratigrafía y correlaciones. Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica, 19: 21-60.

Grgasović T. (1997) - Upper Triassic Biostratigraphy and Algae from Žumberak (Croatia). Geologica Croatica, 50 (2): 201–214.

Grgasović T. (2007) - Overview of the geology of Žumberak and Samoborsko gorje. In: Grgasović T. & Vlahović I. (eds.) - Post-symposium fieldtrip Guidebook, 9th International Symposium on Fossil Algae, Croatia: 137–142.

Gugenberger O. (1927) - Die Cephalopoden des herzegowinischen Ptychiten-Kalkes der Stabljana-Alpe im Volujak-Gebirge. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien, 41: 97–149.

Hauer F. (1887) - Die Cephalopoden des bosnischen Muschelkalkes von Han Bulog bei Sarajevo. Denkschriften der mathematisch–naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 54: 1–50.

Hauer F. (1896) - Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Cephalopoden aus der Trias von Bosnien. II. Nautileen und Ammoniten mit ceratitischen Loben aus dem Muschelkalk von Haliluci bei Sarajevo. Denkschriften der mathematisch–naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 62: 237–276.

He G. & Wang Y. (1997) - Ladinian ammonoid fauna from northwestern Guangxi, China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 36: 334-349 [In Chinese with English abstract].

Horn M. (1914) - Über die ladinische Knollenkalk-stufe der Südalpen. Dissertationen Königsberg, 101 pp., Königsberg.

Hornung T., Spatzengger A. & Joachimski M.M. (2007) - Multistratigraphy of condensed ammonoid beds of the Rappoltstein (Berchtesgaden, southern Germany): unravelling palaeoenvironmental conditions on ‘Hallstatt deep swells’ during the Reingraben Event (Late Lower Carnian). Facies, 53: 267-292.

ICZN (1999) - International code of zoological nomenclature. 4th edn. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

Ishibashi T. (1978) - A Middle Triassic Ammonite from the Isatomae Formation, Kitakami, Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Earth and planetary sciences, 24 (1): 25–31.

Jadoul F., Gervasutti M. & Fantini Sestini N. (1992) - The Middle Triassic of the Brembana Valley: preliminary study of the Esino platform (Bergamasc Alps). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 98: 299-324.

Jenks J.F., Monnet C., Balini M., Brayard A. & Meier M. (2015) - Chapter 13, Biostratigraphy of Triassic ammonoids. In: Klug C., Korn D., De Baets K., Kruta I. & Mapes R.H. (eds.) - Ammonoid Paleobiology: From macroevolution to paleogeography. Topics in Geobiology 44: 329–388. Springer.

Klipstein, A.V. (1843) - Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete der Geologie und Palaeontologie. Beiträge zur geologischen Kenntnis der östlichen Alpen, 1: 1–144.

Klug C., Korn D., Landman N.H., Tanabe K., Da Baets K. & Naglik C. (2015) - Chapter 1, Describing Ammonoid Conchs. In: Klug C., Korn D., De Baets K., Kruta I. & Mapes, R.H. (eds.) - Ammonoid Paleobiology: From anatomy to ecology. Topics in Geobiology 43: 3-24. Springer.

Korn D., Ebbighausen V., Bockwinkel J., Klug C. (2003) - The A-Model Sutural Ontogeny in Prolecanitid Ammonoids. Palaeontology, 46 (6): 1123–1132.

Kozur H.W. (2003) - Integrated ammonoid, conodont and radiolarian zonation of the Triassic and some remarks to Stage/Substage subdivision and the numeric age of the Triassic stages. Albertiana, 28: 57-74.

Krystyn L., Schäffer G. & Schlager W. (1968) - Stratigraphie und Sedimentationsbild obertriadischer Hallstätter Kalke des Salzkammergutes. Österreichische Akademie Der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 14: 329-332.

Krystyn L. (1983) - Das Epidaurus-Profil (Griechenland) - ein Beitrag zur Conodonten-Standardzonierung des tethyalen Ladin und Unterkarn. In: Zapfe H. (ed) - Neue Beiträge zur Biostratigraphie der Tethys-Trias. Schriftenreihe der Erdwissenschaftlichen Kommissionen der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 5: 231-258.

Krystyn L., Balini M. & Nicora A. (2004) - Lower and Middle Triassic stage and substage boundaries in Spiti. Albertiana, 30: 39-52.

Kullmann J. & Wiedmann J. (1970) - Significance of sutures in phylogeny of Ammonoidea. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions Paper, 47: 1–32.

Laube G.C. (1869) - Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian. Ein Beitrag zu Paläontologie der alpinen Trias. V. Abtheilung. Cephalopoden-Schluss. Denkschriften der kaiserlich-königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 30: 49–106.

Leonardi P. & Polo C. (1952) - La Fauna Cassiana di Cortina d’Ampezzo. Parte IIa: Cefalopodi. Memorie degli Istituti di Geologia e Mineralogia dell’Università di Padova, 17: 1–28.

Lucas S.G. (2010) - The Triassic timescale: an introduction. In: Lucas S.G. (ed) - The Triassic Timescale. Geological Society of London, Special Publication 334: 1-16.

Mandl G.W. (2000) - The Alpine sector of the Tethyan Shelf: examples of Triassic to Jurassic sedimentation and deformation from the Northern Calcareous Alps. Mitteilungen. Österreichische Geologische Gesellschaft, 92: 61–79.

Manfrin S., Mietto P. & Preto N. (2005) - Ammonoid biostratigraphy of the Middle Triassic Latemar platform (Dolomites, Italy) and its correlation with Nevada and Canada. Geobios, 38: 477–504.

Martelli A. (1904) - Cefalopodi triasici di Boljevici presso Vir nel Montenegro. Palaeontographia Italica, 10: 75–140.

Martelli A. (1906) – Contributo al Muschelkalk superiore del Montenegro. Palaentographia Italica, 12: 97-154.

McLearn F.H. (1943) - Variation and development in Protrachyceras from the Triassic of Peace River, B.C. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 37: 53-58.

McLearn F.H. (1947) - The Triassic Nathorstites fauna in northeastern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 47-24, 27 pp.

Mietto P. & Manfrin S. (1995a) - A high resolution Middle Triassic ammonoid standard scale in the Tethys Realm. A preliminary report. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 166: 539–563.

Mietto P. & Manfrin S. (1995b) - La successione delle faune ad ammonoidi al limite Ladinico-Carnico (Sudalpino, Italia). Annali Universita di Ferrera Sci. Terra, 5(suppl.): 13-35.

Mietto P., Gianolla P., Manfrin S. & Preto N. (2003) - Refined ammonoid biochronostratigraphy of the Bagolino section (Lombardian Alps, Italy), GSSP candidate for the base of the Ladinian Stage. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 109 (3): 449-462.

Mietto P., Manfrin S., Preto N. & Gianolla P. (2008) - Selected ammonoid fauna from Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen and related sections across the Ladinian-Carnian boundary (Southern Alps, Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 114: 377-429.

Mietto P., Manfrin S., Preto N., Rigo M., Roghi G., Furin S., Gianolla P., Posenato R., Muttoni G., Nicora A., Buratti N., Cirilli S., Spötl C., Ramezani J. & Bowring S.A. (2012) - The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Carnian Stage (Late Triassic) at Prati di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen Section (Southern Alps, NE Italy). Episodes, 35: 414-430.

Mietto P., Manfrin S. & Rigo M. (2018) - Middle Triassic ammonoid fauna from the Recoaro and Tretto areas (NE Italy) and its stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic evidence. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 57 (3): 217–250.

Mojsisovics E.M. von (1882) - Die Cephalopoden der mediterranen Triasprovinz. Abhandlungen der kaiserlich–königlichen geologischen Reichsanstalt, 10: 1–322.

Mojsisovics E.M. von (1893) - Das Gebirge um Hallstatt. I. Abtheilung: Die Cephalopoden der Hallstätter Kalke. Abhandlungen der kaiserlisch-königliche geologischen Reichsanstalt, 6: 1-835.

Monnet C. & Bucher, H. (2005) - New Middle and Late Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoid faunas from northwestern Nevada (USA): taxonomy and biochronology. Fossils and Strata, 52: 1–121.

Monnet C., Bucher H., Wasmer M. & Guex J. (2010) - Revision of the genus Acrochordiceras Hyatt, 1877 (Ammonoidea, Middle Triassic): morphology, biometry, biostratigraphy and intra-specific variability. Palaeontology, 53 (5): 961-996.

Monnet C., De Baets K. & Yacobucci M.M. (2015) – Chapter 4, Buckman’s Rules of Covariation. In: Klug C., Korn D., De Baets K., Kruta I. & Mapes R.H. (eds) - Ammonoid Paleobiology: From macroevolution to paleogeography. Topics in Geobiology 44: 67-94. Springer.

Mu E., Yin J., Wen S., Wang Y. & Zhang B. (1973) - Stratigraphy of the Mount Jolmo Lungma region in southern Tibet, China. Scientia Geologica Sinica, 16: 13-25 [in Chinese with English summary].

Ogilvie Gordon M. M. (1927) - Das Grödener-, Fassa- und Enneberggebiet in den Südtirolen Dolomiten. III. Teil, Paläontologie. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 24 (2): 1–89.

Pálfy J., Parrish R.R., David K. & Vörös A. (2003) - Mid-Triassic integrated U–Pb geochronology and ammonoid biochronology from the Balaton Highland (Hungary). Journal of the Geological Society, London, 160: 271–284.

Parnes A. (1962) - Triassic Ammonites from Israel. State of Israel, Ministry of Development, Geological Survey Bulletin, 33: 1-79.

Parnes A., Benjamini C. & Hirsch F. (1985) - New aspects of Triassic ammonoid biostratigraphy, paleoenvironments and paleobiogeography in southern Israel (Sepharadic Province). Journal of Paleontology, 59: 656–666.

Parnes A. (1986) - Middle Triassic Cephalopods from the Negev (Israel) and Sinai (Egypt). Geological Survey of Israel Bulletin, 79: 9-59.

Pérez Valera J.A. (2005) - Ammonoideos y bioestratigrafía del Triásico Medio (Anisiense superior-Ladiniense) en la sección de Calasparra (sector oriental de la Cordillera Bética, Murcia, España). Coloquios de Paleontología, 55: 125-161.

Pérez Valera J.A. (2016) - Ammonoideos y bioestratigrafía del Triásico Medio (Ladiniense) del sector oriental de la Cordillera Bética. Doctoral thesis, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, 489 pp.

Pérez Valera J.A., Escudero-Mozo M.J., Arche A., Goy A., Lòpez- Gòmez J., Pérez-Lòpez A. & Perez-Valera F. (2016) - Los Ammonoideos del Triasico Medio de España. Implicaciones Bioestratigraficas y Paleobiogeograficas. In: Meléndez G., Núñez A. & Tomás M. (eds) - Actas de las XXXII Jornadas de la Sociedad Española de Paleontología. Madrid: Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, 2016. (Cuadernos del Museo Geominero; 20), pp. 471-478.

Petek T. (1998) - Scythian and Anisian beds in the quarry near Hrastenica and important finds of Upper Anisian fossils. Geologija, 40: 119–151 [In Slovenian with English abstract].

Pisa G. (1966) - Ammoniti ladiniche dell’alta valle di Tagliamento (Alpi Carniche). Giornale di Geologia, Annali del Museo Geologico di Bologna, 33 (2): 617–683.

Plascencia P., Márquez-Aliaga A., Pérez-Valera J.A., Baud A., Sudar M., Kiliç A. & Hirsch F. (2016) – Comments on: A Review of the Evolution, Biostratigraphy, Provincialism and Diversity of Middle and Early Late Triassic Conodonts. Papers in Palaeontology, 2 (3): 451-456.

Pleničar, M., Premru, U. & Herak, M. (1976) - Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000, List Novo Mesto L33.79. Geološki zavod, Ljubljana, (1963–1969); Savezni geološki institut, Beograd (1975).

Polifka S. (1886) - Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Fauna des Schlern- Dolomites. Jahrbuch der kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichstanstalt, 36: 595–606.

Pomoni F.A. & Tselepidis V. (2013) - Lithofacies palaeogeography and biostratigraphy of the lowermost horizons of the Middle Triassic Hallstatt Limestones (Argolis Peninsula, Greece). Journal of Paleogeography, 2 (3): 252–274.

Prlj N. & Mudrenović V. (1988) - Srednotrijaski amoniti iz područja Pribudića. Geološki Vjesnik, 41: 15–24.

Rein S. & Werneburg R. (2010) - Parapinacoceras und Gymnites (Ammonoidea) aus der enodis/posseckeri-Zone im Oberen Muschelkalk (Mittel-Trias, Ladin) Thüringens. Semana, 25: 87–100.

Reis O. (1901) - Eine Fauna des Wettersteinkalkes. I. Theil. Cephalopoden. Geognostische Jahreshefte, 13: 71–105.

Reis O. (1907) - Eine Fauna des Wettersteinkalkes. II. Theil. Nachtrag zu den Cephalopoden. Geognostische Jahreshefte, 18: 113–152.

Renz C. (1906) - Trias und Jura in der Argolis. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 58: 379–395.

Renz C. (1910) - Die mezozoischen Faunen Griechenlands. I. Die triadischen Faunen der Argolis. Palaeontographica, 58: 1–103.

Rieber H. & Brack P. (2004) - Taxonomy and stratigraphic significance of Falsanolcites gen. nov., Anolcites-like Middle Triassic ammonoidea from the Alps and Greece. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 88: 157–178.

Rieber H. (1973) - Cephalopoden aus der Grenzbitumenzone (Mittlere Trias) des Monte San Giorgio (Kanton Tessin, Schweiz). Schweizerische Paläontologische Abhandlungen, 93: 1–96.

Rossi Ronchetti C. (1960) - Il Trias in Lombardia (studi geologici e paleontologici). 11. Cefalopodi ladinici del Gruppo delle Grigne. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 103: 1-64.

Roth L. 1871 - A Felső-Örs melletti Forráshegy lejtőjének geologiai átmetszete. Földtani Közlöny 1 (9): 209–215.

Sakač K. (1992) - Discoptychites oenensis n. sp. and the accompanying ammonite fauna from Anisian deposits in Brotinja, Lika, Central Croatia. Natura Croatica, 1: 27–40.

Sakač K. (1994) - Srednjotrijaski cefalopodi Žumberka. Vijesti Hrvatskog geološkog društva, 31 (2): 41–42.

Salopek M. (1912) - O srednjem trijasu Gregurić brijega u Samoborskoj gori i o njegovoj fauni. Djela Jugoslavenska Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti, 20: 1–34.

Salopek M. (1914) - O naslagama s okaminama kod Kunovac-vrela u Lici. Prirodoslovna Istraživanja Hrvatske i Slavonije, 4: 1–23.

Salopek M. (1918) - O naslagama s Daonellama u Hrvatskoj. Prirodoslovna Istraživanja Hrvatske i Slavonije, 13: 28–33.

Salopek M. (1936) - O cefalopodnim vapnencima Greguric-brijega u Samoborskoj gori. Prirodoslovna Istrazivanja Kraljevine Jugoslavije, 20: 201–228.

Schlager W. (1969) - Das Zusammenwirken von Sedimentation und Bruchtektonik in den triadischen Hallstatter kalken der Ostalpen. Geologische Rundschau, 59 (1): 289-308.

Schlager W. (1974) - Preservation of cephalopod skeletons and carbonate dissolution on ancient Tethyan sea floor. In: Hsü K.J. & Jenkyns H.C. (eds.) - Pelagic Sediments: On Land and Under the Sea. Special publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, 1: 49-70.

Schmid S.M., Fügenschuh B., Kounov A., Maţenco L., Nievergelt P., Oberhänsli R., Pleuger J., Schefer S., Schuster R., Tomljenović B., Ustaszewski K., van Hinsbergen D.J.J. (2020) - Tectonic units of the Alpine collision zone between Eastern Alps and western Turkey. Gondwana Research, 78: 308-374.

Shevyrev A.A. (1995) – Triassic Ammonites of North-western Caucasus. Nauka, Moskva, 174 pp. [In Russian].

Šikić, K., Basch, O. & Šimunić, A. (1978) - Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000, List Zagreb L33–80. Institut za geološka istraživanja, Zagreb (1972); Savezni geološki institut, Beograd (1977).

Šikić K., Basch O. & Šimunić A. (1979) - Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000, Tumač za list Zgreb L33–80. Institut za geološka istraživanja, Zagreb (1972), Savezni geološki institut, Beograd, 81 pp.

Silberling N.J. & Nichols K.M. (1982) - Middle Triassic Molluscan Fossils of biostratigraphic significance from the Humboldt Range, northwestern Nevada. U.S. Geological Survey Professional paper, 1207: 77 pp.

Simionescu I. (1913) - Studii geologici si paleontologice din Dobrogea, VI. Fauna amoniţilor triasici dela Hagighiol. Les ammonites triasiques de Hagighiol (Dobrogea). Publicaţiunile fondului Vasile Adamachi, 34: 271–370.

Smith J.P. (1914) - The Middle Triassic invertebrate faunas of North America. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 83: 148 pp.

Tommasi A. (1899) - La fauna dei calcari rossi e grigi del Monte Clapsavon nella Carnia Occidentale. Palaeontographia Italica, 5: 1–54.

Tornquist A. (1898) - Neue Beiträge zur Geologie und Paläontologie der Umgebung von Recoaro und Schio (im Vicentin) II. Beitrag: Die Subnodosus-Schichten. Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, 50: 637–694.

Toula F. (1898) - Ueber Protrachyceras anatolicum n. f., ein neues Triasfossil vom Golfe von Ismid. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, jhg. 1898: 26-34.

Toula F. (1913) - Geologisch–paläontologische Beobachtungen aus der Gegend von Drvar, Peći und Duler in Westbosnien. Jahrbuch der kaiserlich–königlichen geologischen Reichsanstal, 63: 621–694.

Tozer E.T. & Calon T.J. (1990) – Triassic ammonoids from Jabal Saffra and Wadi Alwa, Oman, and their significance. In: Robertson A. H. F., Searle M. P. & Reis A. C. (eds.) – The geology and Tectonics of the Oman Region. Geological Society Special Publication 49: 203-211.

Tozer E.T. (1980) - New genera of Triassic Ammonoidea. Current Research. Part A, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 80-1A: 107–113.

Tozer E.T. (1981) - Triassic Ammonoidea: Classification, Evolution and Relationship with Permian and Jurassic Forms. In House M.R. & Senior J.R. (eds) - The Ammonoidea. The Systematics Association Special Volume, 18: 66-100.

Tozer E.T. (1994) - Canadian Triassic Ammonoid Faunas. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 467: 1–663.

Tselepidis V. (2007) - Palaiontologike kai stromatografike melete ton ammonitoeidon tes Epidaurou. Simbole ste gnose tes palaiogeografikes eksaploses tes fases „Hallstat“ stis Ellenides. Doctoral thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 383 pp.

Turina J. (1912) - Ein neuer Fundort des roten Han Bulog-Ptychitenkalkes bei Sarajevo. Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus Bosnien und der Herzegowina, 12: 667–694.

Urlichs M. & Kurzweil W. (1997) - Erstnachweis von Flexoptychites (Ammonoidea) aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Mitteltrias) Nordwürttembergs. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie), 253: 1-8.

Urlichs M. (1977) - Zur Altersstellung der Pachycardientuffe und der Unteren Cassianer Schichten in den Dolomiten (Italien). Mitteilungen der Bayerischen Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie, 17: 15–25.

Urlichs, M. (1978) - Über zwei alpine Ammoniten aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk SW-Deutschlands. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie), 39: 1–13.

Urlichs, M. (2017) - Revision of some stratigraphically relevant ammonoids from the Cassian Formation (latest Ladinian–early Carnian, Triassic) of St. Cassian (Dolomites, Italy). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, 283 (2): 173–204.

van Hinsbergen D. J. J., Torsvik T. H., Schmid S. M., Maţenco L. C., Maffione M., Vissers R. L. M., Gürer D. & Spakman W. (2020) - Orogenic architecture of the Mediterranean region and kinematic reconstruction of its tectonic evolution since the Triassic. Gondwana Research, 81: 79–229.

Velić I., Vlahović I. & Matičec D. (2002) – Depositional sequences and Palaeogeography of the Adriatic Carbonate Platform. Memorie della Società Geoligica Italiana, 57: 141–151.

Vlahović I., Tišljar J., Velić I. & Matičec D. (2005) - Evolution of the Adriatic Carbonate Platform: Palaeogeography, main events and depositional dynamics. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 220: 333–360.

Vörös A. & Pálfy J. (1989) - The Anisian/Ladinian boundary in the Vászoly section (Balaton Highland, Hungary). Fragmenta Mineralogica et Palaeontologica, 14: 17–27.

Vörös A. (1998) - A Balaton-felvidék triász ammonoideái és biosztratigráfiája. Studia Naturalia, 12: 105 pp.

Vörös A. (2002) - Paleoenvironmental distribution of some Middle Triassic ammonoid genera in the Balaton Highland (Hungary). Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 57: 479–490.

Vörös A. (2010) - Late Anisian Ammonoidea from Szár-hegy (Rudabánya Mts); a Dinaric-type fauna from North Hungary. Fragmenta Palaeontologica Hungarica, 28: 1–20.

Vörös A. (2014) - Ammonoid diversification in the Middle Triassic: Examples from the Tethys (Eastern Lombardy, Balaton Highland) and the Pacific (Nevada). Central European Geology, 57 (4): 319–343.

Vörös A. (2018) - The Upper Anisian ammonoids of the Balaton Highland (Middle Triassic, Hungary). Geologica Hungarica, series paleontologica, 60: 1–241.

Vörös A., Budai T., Haas J., Kovács S., Kozur H. & Pálfy J. (2003) - GSSP (Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point) proposal for the base of Ladinian (Triassic). A proposal for the GSSP at the base of the Reitzi Zone (sensu stricto) at Bed 105 in the Felsöörs section, Balaton Higland, Hungary. Albertiana, 28: 35–47.

Vörös A, Budai T. & Szabó I. (2008) - The base of the Curionii Zone (Ladinian, Triassic) in Felsőörs (Hungary): improved correlation with the Global Stratotype Section. Central European Geology, 51 (4): 325–339.

Wang Y. (1983) – Ammonoids from Falang Formation (Ladinian-E.Carnian) of Southwestern Guizhou, China. Acta Paleontologica Sinaica, 22: 154-162 [In Chinese with English abstract].

Wang Y. (1985) – Remarks on the Scythian-Anisian Boundary. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 90 (4): 515-544.

Wedekind R. (1916) - Über Lobus, Suturallobus und Inzision. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, v. 1916: 185 – 195.

Weise F. & Schulze F. (2005) – The upper Cenomanian (Cretaceous) ammonite Neolobites vibrayeanus (d’Orbigny, 1841) in the Middle East: taxonomic and palaeoecologic remarks. Cretaceous Research, 26: 930-946.

Welter O. A. (1915) – Die Ammoniten und Nautiliden der ladinischen und anisischen Trias von Timor. Paläontologie von Timor, 5: 71 – 136.

Wendt J. (1973) - Cephalopod accumulations in the Middle Triassic Hallstatt-Limestone of Jugoslavia and Greece. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte, 29 (4): 624-640.

Wendt J. & Aigner T. (1985) – Facies patterns and depositional environments of Palaeozoic Cephalopod Limestones. Sedimentary Geology, 44: 263-300.

Westermann G.E.G. (1966) - Covariation and taxonomy of the Jurassic ammonite Sonninia adicra (Waagen). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 124: 289–312.

Wilmsen M. & Mosavinia A. (2011) - Phenotypic plasticity and taxonomy of Schloenbachia varians (J. Sowerby, 1817) (Cretaceous Ammonoidea). Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 85:169–184.

Yurttaş-Özdemir Ü. (1971) - Kocaeli Yarimadasi, Tepeköy Triasi makrofaunasi ve biyostratigrafisi. Doctoral thesis, Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü, Ankara, 98 pp.

Xu G., Niu Z. & Chen H. (2003) - Triassic cephalopods from the Zhuganpo and Xiaowa Formations in Guanling, Guizhou, with a discussion on the age of the Guanling biota. Geological Bulletin of China, 22: 254-265 [In Chinese with English abstract].

Zakharov Yu.D., Arkhangelsky M.S., Zverkov N.G., Borisov I.V. & Popov A.M. (2015) – Age of beds with ichthyosaur Tholodus in South Primorye. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology, 9: 390-397.

Zou X., Balini M., Jiang D., Tintori A., Sun Z. & Sun Y (2015) – Ammonoids from the Zhuganpo member of the Falang Formation at Nimaigu and their relevance for dating the Xingyi fossil-lagerstätte (Late Ladinian, Guizhou, China). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 121 (2): 136-161.

Downloads

Published

2023-09-07

Issue

Section

Articles
Received 2023-03-21
Accepted 2023-08-07
Published 2023-09-07