• MARTYN L. GOLDING Geological Survey of Canada
  • ALI M. KILIÇ Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey.



Gladigondolella; Cratognathodus; multielement apparatus; Anisian; Bray-Curtis index; Jaccard index.


The multielement apparatus of the Spathian (late Early Triassic) to Carnian (early Late Triassic) conodont Gladigondolella tethydis (Huckriede, 1958) is reconstructed here using multivariate statistical analysis to determine the co-occurrence of elements previously assigned to the Gl. tethydis apparatus by other authors. Disagreements on the apparatus composition of Gl. tethydis have focussed around whether or not the species contained two pairs of P2 elements, or only one pair. Some reconstructions consider elements referred to Cratognathodus as belonging to the multielement apparatus of Gladigondolella, whereas other workers consider these elements to belong to their own multielement apparatus. In the absence of fused clusters or bedding plane assemblages, multivariate statistical analysis of isolated elements provides the best method for constraining apparatus composition. Examination of collections from the Anisian (early Middle Triassic) of China and Romania, together with published occurrences from the Anisian and Carnian from around the world, has allowed the development of a database for both abundance and presence/absence of elements assigned to the Gladigondolella tethydis apparatus. Bray-Curtis indices for abundance data and Jaccard indices for presence/absence data both demonstrate that Cratognathodus elements occur as frequently with other elements belonging to the Gladigondolella tethydis apparatus as those elements do with each other. This lends support to the hypothesis that Cratognathodus elements also belong to the Gladigondolella tethydis apparatus. Therefore, the Gladigondolella tethydis apparatus proposed herein consists of the following elements: Gladigondolella tethydis (P1); Cratognathodus sp. (P2a): Ozarkodina saginata (Huckriede, 1958) (P2b); Roundya lautissima (Huckriede, 1958) (S0); Lonchodina spengleri (Huckriede, 1958) (S1); an enantiognathid element (S2); Hindeodella petrae-viridis (Huckriede, 1958) (S3); Hindeodella multihamata (Huckriede, 1958) (S4); and Lonchodina venusta (Huckriede, 1958) (M). Several of the elements assigned to the apparatus exhibit morphological variability, including the P1 element of Gladigondolella tethydis.


(2013) - A 17-element conodont apparatus from the Soom Shale Lagerstäte (Upper Ordovician), South Africa. Palaeontology, 56: 261-276.

Bender H. (1970) - Zur Gliederung der Mediterranen Trias II. Die Conodontenchronologie der Mediterranen Trias. Annales Geologiques des Pays Helleniques, 19: 465-540.

Birkenmajer K., Kozur H. & Mock R. (1990) - Exotic Triassic limestone pebbles from the Pieniny Klippen Belt of Poland: A further evidence for early Mesozoic rifting in West Carpathians. Annales Societalis Geologorum Poloniae, 60: 3-44.

Boyanov I. & Budurov K. (1979) - Triassic conodonts in carbonate breccia within the low-grade metamorphic rocks of the East Rhodopes. Geologica Balcanica, 9: 97-104.

Bray J.R. & Curtis J.T. (1957) - An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs, 27: 325-349.

Budurov K. (1960) - Karnische Conodonta aus der umgebung der Stadt Kotel. Annulaire de la direction generale des recherches geologiques, 9: 109-130.

Budurov K. (1973) - Carinella n. gen. und revision der gattung Gladigondolella (Conodonta). Comptes rendus de l’Academie bulgare des Sciences, 26: 799-802.

Budurov K. (1976a) - Structures, evolution and taxonomy of the Triassic platform conodonts. Geologica Balcanica, 6: 13-20.

Budurov K. (1976b) - Die triassichen Conodonten des Ostbalkans. Geologica Balcanica, 6: 95-104.

Budurov K. & Pévny J. (1970) - Über die anwesenheit von Trias-Conodonten in den Westkarpaten. Geologické práce, 51: 165-171.

Čatalov G. & Budurov K. (1975) - Üer Petrographie und Conodonten triassicher Kalk aus dem Gebiet des Dorfes Vizica, Strandža-Gebirge. Comptes rendus de l’Académie bulgare des Sciences, 28: 1245-1248.

Čatalov G. & Stefanov S. (1966) - Neue paläontologische Angaben zum triassischen Alter eines Teiles der kristallinen Schiefer in Südosbulgarien. Bulletin of the Strašimir Dimitrov Institute of Geology, 15: 269-277.

Chen Y., Krystyn L., Orchard M.J., Lai X.-L. & Richoz S. (2016) - A review of the evolution, biostratigraphy, provincialism and diversity of Middle and early Late Triassic conodonts. Papers in Paleontology, 2: 235-263.

Chen Y., Jiang H., Ogg J.G., Zhang Y., Gong Y. & Yan C. (2020) - Early-Middle Triassic boundary interval: Integrated chemo-bio-magneto-stratigraphy of potential GSSPs for the base of the Anisian in South China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 530: 115863.

Chen Y., Joachimski M.M., Richoz S., Krystyn L., Aljinović D., Smirčić D., Kolar-Jurkovšek T., Lai X. & Zhang Z. (2021) - Smithian and Spathian (Early Triassic) conodonts from Oman and Croatia and their depth habitat revealed. Global and Planetary Change, 196: 103362.

Clifford H.T. & Stevenson W.S. (1975) - An Introduction to Numerical Classification. Academic Press, London, 244 pp.

Di Stefano P., Rigo M., Tripodo A., Todaro S. & Zarcone G. (2014) - New biostratigraphic data from the Ladinian pelagic limestones of Pizzo di Sant’Otiero – Madone Mountains, Sicily. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 120: 61-70.

Dürkoop A., Richter D.K. & Stritzke R. (1986) - Fazies, Alter und Korrelation der triadischen Rotkalke von Epidauros, Adhami und Hydra (Griechenland). Facies, 14: 105-150.

Dzik J. (1976) - Remarks on the evolution of Ordovician conodonts. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 21: 395-455.

Farabegoli E., Levanti D., Cristina Perri M. & Veneri P. (1984) - M. Bivera Formation: an atypical Middle Triassic “Ammonitico Rosso” facies from Southern Alps (Italy). Giornale di Geologia, 46: 33-46.

Gaetani M., Jacobshagen V., Nicora A., Kauffmann G., Tselepidis V., Fantini Sestini N., Mertmann D. & Skourtsis-Coroneou V. (1992) - The Early-Middle Triassic boundary at Chios (Greece). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 98: 181-204.

Gedik I. (1975) - Die Conodonten der Tria sauf der Kocaeli-Halbinsel (Türkei). Palaeontographica Abteilung A, 150: 99-160.

Golding M.L. (2021) - Early Anisian (Middle Triassic) conodonts from Romania and China, with comments on their role in the recognition and correlation of the base of the Anisian. Journal of Earth Science, 32: 573-591.

Golding M.L. & Orchard M.J. (2021) - Diverse Late Paleozoic and Triassic conodont faunas from the Cache Creek Terrane, central British Columbia, Canada. Palaeontographica Canadiana, 39, 93 pp.

Grădinaru E. (2021) - The Olenekian-Anisian/Early-Middle Triassic Boundary, and assessment of the potential of conodonts for chronostratigraphic calibration of the Triassic timescale. Acta Palaeontologica Romaniae, 18: 3-51.

Grădinaru E., Kozur H.W., Nicora A. & Orchard M.J. (2006) - The Chiosella timorensis lineage and correlation of the ammonoids and conodonts around the base of the Anisian in the GSSP candidate at Deşli Caira, (North Dobrodgea, Romania). Albertiana, 34: 34-38.

Grădinaru E., Orchard M.J., Nicora A., Gallet Y., Besse J., Krystyn L., Sobolev E.S., Atudorei V. & Ivanovna D. (2007) - The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Anisian stage: Deşli Caira Hill, North Dobrodgea, Romania. Albertiana, 36: 54-71.

Gupta V.J. & Budurov K.J. (1981) - Triassic conodonts from Spiti (Himalaya, India) and their correlations: preliminary data. Geologica Balcanica, 11: 21-26.

Hammer Ø & Harper D.A.T. (2006) - Paleontological Data Analysis. Blackwell Publishing, 351 pp.

Hayashi S. (1968) - The Permian conodonts in chert of the Adoyama Formation, Ashio Mountains, Central Japan. Earth Sciences (Chikyu Kagaku), 22: 63-77.

Hayashi S. (1971) - Conodonts from the Nabeyama Formation, Kuzuu District, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Earth Sciences (Chikyu Kagaku), 25: 251-257.

Hirsch F. (1969) - Contribution à l’étude micropaléontologique du Trias: La succession des faunes des conodontes dans les couches de passage de l’Anisien supérieur au Ladinien inférieur des Alpes orientales et méridionales. Archives des Sciences, Genève, 22: 83-90.

Hornung T. (2006) - Conodont biostratigraphy of the Lercheck/Königsleiten section near Berchtesgaden (Late Ladinian – Hallstatt Limestones). GeoAlp, 3: 23-31.

Hornung T. & Brandner R. (2005) - Biostratigraphy of the Reingraben Turnover (Hallstatt Facies Belt): local black shale events controlled by the regional tectonics, climatic change and plate tectonics. Facies, 51: 460-479.

Hornung T., Spatzenegger A. & Joachimski M.M. (2007) - Multistratigraphy of condensed ammonoid beds of the Rappoltstein (Berchtesgaden, southern Germany): unravelling palaeoenvironmental conditions on “Hallstatt deep swells” during the Reingraben Event (late Lower Carnian). Facies, 53: 267-292.

Huckriede R. (1958) - Die Conodonten der mediterranen Trias und ihr stratigraphischer Wert. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 32: 10-14.

Igo H. (1989) - Mixed conodont elements from Hachiman Town, Mino Terrane, central Japan. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, 156: 270-285.

Ishida K. & Hirsch F. (2011) - The Triassic conodonts of the NW Malayan Kodiang Limestone revisited: Taxonomy and paleogeographic significance. Gondwana Research, 19: 22-36.

Ishida K., Suzuki S., Dimalanta C.B., Yumul Jr. G.P., Zamoras L.R., Faure M., Hirsch F., Kılıç A.M. & Plasencia P. (2015) - Discovery of Triassic microfossils from the Buruanga Peninsula, Panai Island, North Palawan Block, Philippines. Natural Science Research, University of Tokushima, 29: 5-20.

Ishii K. & Nogami Y. (1966) - Discovery of Triassic conodonts from the so-called Palaeozoic Limestone in Kedah, Malaya. Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 9: 93-98.

Isozaki Y. & Matsuda T. (1980) - Age of the Tamba Group along the Hozugawa "Anticline", Western Hills of Kyoto, Southwest Japan. Journal of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 23: 115-134.

Jaccard P. (1901) - Distribution de la flore alpine dans le Bassin des Dranses et dans quelques regions voisines. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 37: 241-272.

Jenkins T.B.H. & Jenkins D.G. (1971) - Conodonts of the Haast Schist and Torlesse Groups of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 14: 782-794.

Ji W., Tong J., Zhao L., Zhou S. & Chen J. (2011) - Lower-Middle Triassic conodont biostratigraphy of the Qingyan section, Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308: 213-223.

Kemper E., Maronde H.-D. & Stoppel D. (1976) - Triassic and Jurassic limestone in the region northwest and west of Si Sawat (Kanchanaburi Province, Western Thailand). Geologische Jahrbuch, 21: 93-127.

Kılıç A.M. (2016) - A new pelagic conodont taxon of the Central Pontides (Turkey). Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 25: 456-466.

Kılıç A.M. (2021) - Anisian (Middle Triassic) conodonts of the Kocaeli Triassic, western Turkey. Journal of Earth Science, 32: 616-632.

Kılıç A.M., Plasencia P., Ishida K., Hirsch F. & Yümün Z.U. (2013) - Reflections on the apparatus of Triassic Gondolellacea (Conodonta) and the question of sexually dimorphs. In: Albanesi G.L. & Ortega G. (Eds.) - Conodonts from the Andes. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conodont Symposium, Asociación Paleontológica Argentina, Special Volume, 13: 63-67.

Koike T. (1981) - Biostratigraphy of Triassic conodonts in Japan. Science Reports of the Yokohama National University, sec. II, 28: 25-42.

Koike T. (1982) - Triassic conodont biostratigraphy in Kedah, western Malaysia. Contributions to the geology and palaeontology of Southeast Asia, 220. In: Kobayashi T., Toriyama R. & Hashimoto W. (Eds.) - Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia, 23: 9-51.

Koike T. (1999) - Apparatus of a Triassic conodont species Cratognathodus multihamatus (Huckriede). Paleontological Research, 3: 234-248.

Kolar-Jurkovšek T. (1983) - Srednjetriasni konodonti Slovenije. Rudarsko-Metalurški Zbornik, 30: 323-364.

Kovács S. & Kozur H.W. (1980a) - Some remarks on Middle and Upper Triassic platform conodonts. Recent Researches in Geology, 6: 541-581.

Kovács S. & Kozur H. (1980b) - Stratigraphische Reichweite der wichtigsten Conodonten (ohne Zahnreihenconodonten) der Mittel- und Obertrias. Geologische-Paläontologische Mitteilungen Innsbruck, 10: 47-78.

Kozur H.W. (1968a) - Neue conodonten aus dem Oberen Meschelkalk des germanischen Binnenbeckens (vorfläufige Mitteilung). Monatsberichte der deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 10: 130-142.

Kozur H.W. (1968b) - Conodonten aus dem Muschelkalk des germanischen Binnen-beckens und ihr stratigraphischer Wert. Teil I: Conodonten vom Plattformtyp und stratigraphische Bedeutung der Conodonten aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk. Geologie, 17: 930-946.

Kozur H.W. (1968c) - Conodonten aus dem Muschelkalk des germanischen Binnen-beckens und ihr stratigraphischer Wert. Teil II: Zahnreinen-Conodonten. Geologie, 17: 1070-1085.

Kozur H. & Mock R. (1973a) - Zum Alter und zur tektonischen Stellung der Meliata-Serie des Slowakischen Karstes. Geologický Zborník - Geologica Carpathica, 24: 365-374.

Kozur H. & Mock R. (1973b) - Died Bedeutung der Trias-Conodonten für die Stratigraphie und Tektonik der Trias in den Westkarpaten. Geologisch-Paläontologische Mitteilungen Innsbruck, 3: 1-14.

Kozur H.W. & Mostler H. (1971) - Probleme der Conodontenforschung in der Trias. Geologisch-Paläontologische Mitteilungen Innsbruck, 1: 1-19.

Kozur H.W. & Mostler H. (1992) - Erster paläontologischer Nachweis von Meliaticum und Süd-Rudabányaicum in den Nördlichen Kalkalpen (Österreich) und ihre Beziehungen zu den Abfolgen in den Westkarpaten. Geologisch-Paläontologische Mitteilungen Innsbruck, 18: 87-129.

Krystyn L. (1980) - Stratigraphy of the Hallstatt region. In: Schönlaub H.P. (Ed.) - Second European Symposium, ECOS II. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 35: 61-98.

Lambert L.L., Wardlaw B.R. & Henderson C.M. (2007) - Mesogondolella and Jinogondolella (Conodonta): Multielement definition of the taxa that bracket the basal Guadalupian (Middle Permian Series) GSSP. Palaeoworld, 16: 208-221.

Lehrmann D.J., Ramezani J., Bowring S.A., Martin M.W., Montgomery P., Enos P., Payne J.L., Orchard M.J., Hongmei W. & Jiayong W. (2006) - Timing of recovery from the end-Permian extinction: geochronologic and biostratigraphic constraints from south China. Geology, 34: 1053-1056.

Lehrmann D.J., Stepchinski L., Altiner D., Orchard M.J., Montgomery P., Enos P., Ellwood B.B., Bowring S.A., Ramezani J., Wang H., Wei J., Yu M., Griffiths J.D., Minzoni M., Schaal E.K., Li X., Meyer K.M. & Payne J.L. (2015) - An integrated biostratigraphy (conodonts and foraminifers) and chronostratigraphy (paleomagnetic reversals, magnetic susceptibility, elemental chemistry, carbon isotopes and geochronology) for the Upper Permian – Upper Triassic strata of Guandao section, Nanpanjiang Basin, south China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 108: 117-135.

Leu M. (2021) - Conodont taxonomy, quantitative biochronology, and evolutionary trends, during the Smithian-Spathian interval (Early Triassic). Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Zürich, 389 pp.

Leu M., Bucher H., Vennemann T., Bagherpour B., Ji C., Brosse M. & Goudemand N. (2022) - A Unitary-Association based conodont biozonation of the Smithian-Spathian boundary (Early Triassic) and associated biotic crisis from South China. Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 141,

Liang L., Tong J., Song H., Song T., Tian L., Song H. & Qiu H. (2016) - Lower-Middle Triassic conodont biostratigraphy of the Mingtang section, Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 459: 381-393.

Maron M., Muttoni G., Rigo M., Gianolla P. & Kent D.V. (2019) - New magnetobiostratigraphic results from the Ladinian of the Dolomites and implications for the Triassic geomagnetic polarity timescale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 517: 52-73.

Mastandrea A. (1995) - Carnian conodonts from Upper Triassic strata of Tamarin section (San Cassiano Formation, Dolomites, Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 100: 493-510.

Matsuda T. (1980) - Discovery of Permian–Triassic mixed conodont assemblage from the Akasaka Limestone, Gifu Prefecture. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan, 86: 41-44.

Merrill G.K. & Merrill S.M. (1974) - Pennsylvanian Nonplatform Conodonts, IIa: The dimorphic Apparatus of Idioprioniodus. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 8: 119-130.

Mietto P. & Petroni M. (1981) - The Ladinian platform conodonts in the Campogrosso section (Recoaro-area, NE-Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 86: 543-562.

Mock R. (1971) - Conodonten aus der Trias der Slowakei und ihre Verwendung in der Stratigraphie. Geologica Carpathica, 22: 241-260.

Mosher L.C. (1968a) - Triassic conodonts from western North America and Europe and their correlation. Journal of Paleontology, 42: 895-946.

Mosher L.C. (1968b) - Evolution of Triassic platform conodonts. Journal of Paleontology, 42: 947-954.

Mosher L.C. & Clark D.L. (1965) - Middle Triassic conodonts from the Prida Formation of northwestern Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 39: 551-565.

Müller K.J. (1962) - Zur systematischen Einteilung der Conodontophorida. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 36: 109-117.

Muto S., Takahashi S., Yamakita S., Suzuki N., Suzuki N. & Aita Y. (2018) - High sediment input and possible oceanic anoxia in the pelagic Panthalassa during the latest Olenekian and early Anisian: Insights from a new deep sea section in Ogama, Tochigi, Japan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 490: 687-707.

Muttoni G., Nicora A., Balini M., Katz M., Schaller M., Kent D.V., Maron M., Meço S., Rettori R., Doda V. & Nazaj S. (2019) - A candidate GSSP for the base of the Anisian from Kçira, Albania. Albertiana, 45: 39-49.

Nakazawa K. & Nogami Y. (1967) - Problematic occurrence of Upper Triassic fossils from the western hills of Kyoto. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Series of Geology and Mineralogy, 34: 9-22.

Neri C., Russo F., Mastandrea A. & Baracca A. (1995) - Litostratigrafia, ammonoidi e conodonti della Formazione di S. Cassiano: la sezione dei Prati di Stuores (Stuores- Wiesen, Dolomiti). Annali Università di Ferrara, 5 (Supplemento): 59-74.

Nogami Y. (1968) - Trias-conodonten von Timor, Malaysien und Japan (Paleontological study of Portuguese Timor, 5). Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Series of Geology and Mineralogy, 34: 115-136.

Önder F. (1984) - Revision of conodont taxonomy in Triassic rocks of the Central Taurus Mountains, Antalya-Turkey. Bulletin of Earth Sciences, The University of Cumhuriyet, 1: 73-131.

Orchard M.J. (2005) - Multielement conodont apparatuses of Triassic Gondolelloidea. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 73: 73-101.

Orchard M.J. (2007) - Conodont diversity and evolution through the latest Permian and Early Triassic upheavals. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252: 93-117.

Orchard M.J. (2010) - Triassic conodonts and their role in stage boundary definition. In: Lucas S.G. (Ed.) - The Triassic Timescale, Geological Society of London Special Publication, 334: 139-161.

Orchard M.J., Cordey F., Rui L., Bamber E.W., Mamet B., Struik L.C., Sano H. & Taylor H. (2001) - Biostratigraphic and biogeographic constraints on the Carboniferous to Jurassic Cache Creek Terrane in central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 38: 551-578.

Orchard M.J., Grădinaru E. & Nicora A. (2007a) - A summary of the conodont succession around the Olenekian-Anisian boundary at Deşli Caira, North Dobrogea, Romania. In: Lucas S.G. and Spielmann J.A. (Eds.) - The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41: 341-346.

Orchard M.J., Lehermann D.J., Jiayong W., Hongmei W. & Taylor H.J. (2007b) - Conodonts from the Olenekian-Anisian boundary beds, Guandao, Guizhou Province, China. In: Lucas S.G. & Spielmann J.A. (Eds.) - The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41: 347-354.

Pander C.H. (1856) - Monographie der fossilen Fische des silurischen Systems der russisch-baltischen Gouvernements. Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg, 91 pp.

Pisa G., Perri C. & Veneri P. (1980) - Upper Anisian conodonts from Dont and M. Bivera formations, Southern Alps (Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 85: 807-828.

Purnell M.A. (1993) - The Kladognathus apparatus (Conodonta, Carboniferous): Homologies with Ozarkodinids, and the Prioniodinid bauplan. Journal of Paleontology, 67: 875-882.

Purnell M.A., Donoghue P.C.J. & Aldridge R.J. (2000) - Orientation and anatomical notation in conodonts. Journal of Paleontology, 74: 113-122.

Sahni A. & Chhabra N.L. (1974) - Middle Triassic conodonts from Kalapani Limestone Malla Johar, Kumaun Himalaya. Himalayan Geology, 4: 259-295.

Samankassou E. (1996) - Conodonts from the Ladinian Buchenstein Formation (Southern Alps, Italy). Jahrbuch der geologischen Bundesanstalt, 139: 523-531.

Sashida K., Ito T., Hong P., Fukushima Y., Agematsu S., Salyapongse S. & Putthapiban P. (2022) - Occurrence of early Carboniferous radiolarians and Middle Triassic conodonts from Ban Rai, southwestern Uthai Thani, central Thailand, and its geological significance. Paleontological Research, 26: 420-439.

Shi G.R. (1993) - Multivariate data analysis in palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography – a review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 105: 199-234.

Sladić-Trifunović M. & Ljubović D. (1975) - Problem starosti hanbuloških krečnjaka. Geološki anali Balkanskog poluostrva, 39: 159-204.

Spasov C. & Ganev M. (1960) - Carnian conodonts of the Luda-Kamčia part of the East Balkans. Travaux sur la Géologie de Bulgaria, Série Paléontologie, 2: 77-99 [in Russian].

Sudar M. (1977) - On the Triassic microfacies of the Uvac Canyon Annales Geologiques de la Peninsule Balkanique, 41: 281-291 [In Russian].

Sweet W.C., Mosher L.C., Clark D.L., Collinson J.W. & Hasenmueller W.A. (1971) - Conodont biostratigraphy of the Triassic. Geological Society of America Memoir, 127: 441-465.

Tekin U.K., Kamata Y., Krystyn L., Okuyucu C., Sayit K. & Nalbantli M. (2021) - First recovery of late Early Triassic (Spathian) pelagic assemblages (radiolarians and conodonts) from block in the Upper Karakaya Complex near Ankara City, central Turkey: Biostratigraphical remarks and correlation. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 175: 104117.

von Bitter P.H. & Purnell M.A. (2005) - An experimental investigation of post-depositional taphonomic bias in conodonts. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 73: 39-56.

Vrielynck B. (1987) - Conodontes du Trias Périméditerranéen. Systématique, stratigraphie. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de Lyon, 97: 301 pp.

Yao J., Ji Z., Wang L., Wang Y., Wu Z., Liu D., Wu G., Zhang J. & Li S. (2011) - Conodont biostratigraphy and age determination of the Lower-Middle Triassic boundary in south Guizhou Province, China. Acta Geologica Sinica, 85: 408-420.

Zawidzka K. (1972) - Stratigraphic position of the Furkaska limestones (Choč nappe, the Tatra Mts). Acta Geologica Polonica, 22: 459-470.

Zhang S. & Yang Y. (1991) - On multielement taxonomy of the Early Triassic conodonts. Stratigraphy and Paleontology of China, 1: 17-47.

Ziegler W. (1973) - Catalogue of Conodonts III. E. Schweitzerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.






Received 2023-03-25
Accepted 2024-01-08
Published 2024-02-08