AN INSIGHT INTO THE SYSTEMATICS OF PLICATOSTYLIDAE (BIVALVIA), WITH A DESCRIPTION OF PACHYGERVILLIA ANGUILLAENSIS N. GEN. N. SP. FROM THE LITHIOTIS FACIES (LOWER JURASSIC) OF ITALY

Authors

  • RENATO POSENATO Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara, Italy. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1543-7411
  • GAIA CRIPPA Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “Ardito Desio”, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34, I-20133 Milano https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5543-8128

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54103/2039-4942/20273

Keywords:

Pterioidea; Mollusca; systematics; microstructure; Trento Platform; Southern Alps.

Abstract

The Lithiotis facies represents an Early Jurassic global bioevent characterized by a remarkable spread of gregarious bivalves, which produced large sedimentary bodies in tropical shallow-water marine environments. The most peculiar and common genera Lithiotis, Cochlearites and Lithioperna, with aberrant and extremely elongated or strongly flattened shells, have been studied since the second half of the nineteenth century. Despite numerous systematic studies, their phylogenetic relationship with the other bivalve families is still uncertain. The Lithiotis facies yields other bivalve genera, among which a large multivincular mytiloid, provisionally determined as Isognomon (Mytiloperna) sp. ind. or Mytiloperna sp., is recorded in the literature. This taxon is here studied from a systematic point of view to clarify its taxonomic position and solve the open nomenclature adopted in the past. Here, we propose a new genus Pachygervillia and a new species Pachygervillia anguillaensis. The stratotype is located in the lower part of the Rotzo Formation (Calcari Grigi Group, Lower Jurassic), while the type locality is in the Lessini Mountains (Verona Province, Trento Platform, Southern Alps). This new species is characterized by a thick aragonitic inner shell layer with a fibrous, irregular, spherulitic, prismatic microstructure combined with a nacreous middle layer, both also occurring in species of the genera Lithiotis and Cochlearites of the family Plicatostylidae. This microstructural layering is here proposed as the main taxonomic character of the family, which is here emended and divided into the following two subfamilies: Plicatostylinae, yielding Lithiotis and Cochlearites with stick-like shells, and Pachygervilliinae nov. subfam., yielding Gervilleioperna, Lithioperna, Pachygervillia n. gen., and Pachyperna, previously placed within the subfamily Isognomoninae.

 

References

Aberhan M. & Hillebrandt A. (1996) - Taxonomy, ecology, and palaeobiogeography of Gervilleioperna (Gervilleiognoma) aurita n. subgen. n. sp. (Bivalvia) from the Middle Jurassic of northern Chile. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 70: 79-96.

Aberhan M. (1994) - Early Jurassic Bivalvia of northern Chile. Part I. Subclasses Palaeotaxodonta, Pteriomorphia, and Isofilibranchia. Beringeria, 13: 3-115.

Accorsi Benini C. (1979) - Lithioperna, un nuovo genere fra i grandi Lamellibranchi della facies a “Lithiotis”. Morfologia, tassonomia e analisi morfofunzionale. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 18(2): 221-257.

Accorsi Benini C. (1980) - Microstruttura di Opisoma Stoliczka, 1871 lamellibranco eterodonte della facies a ‘Lithiotis’ (Liassico). Annali dell'Università di Ferrara, Nuova Serie, Sezione 9, Scienze Geologiche e Paleontologiche, 6 (suppl.): 339-351.

Accorsi Benini C. (1981) - Opisoma Stol. 1871, lamellibranco eterodonte della facies a “Lithiotis” (Giurassico inf., Liassico), revisione morfologica e tassonomica. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 20: 197-228.

Accorsi Benini C. & Broglio Loriga C. (1977) - Lithiotis Gümbel, 1871 e Cochlearites Reis, 1903. I-Revisione morfologica e tassonomica. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 16(1): 15-60.

Accorsi Benini C. & Broglio Loriga C. (1982) - Microstrutture, modalità di accrescimento e periodicità nei lamellibranchi liassici (Facies a “Lithiotis”). Geologica Romana, 21: 795-823.

Benini C. & Loriga C. (1974) - Isognomon (Mytiloperna) v. Ihering 1903 e Gervilleioperna Krumbeck 1923 fra i grossi Lamellibranchi della facies a "Lithiotis" del Veneto. Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali. Rendiconti, Serie 8, 57(3-4): 233-246.

Berti Cavicchi A., Bosellini A. & Broglio Loriga C. (1971) - Calcari a Lithiotis problematica o Calcari a “Lithiotis”? Memorie geopaleontologiche dell’Università di Ferrara, 3/1: 41–53.

Beurlen K. (1944) - Beiträge zur Stammesgeschichte der Muscheln. Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1-2: 133-145.

Bieler R., Carter J. G. & Coan E. V. (2010) - Classification of Bivalve Families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet P., Rocroi J.-P., Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia, 52(2): 1-184.

Bieler R., Mikkelsen P.M., Collins T.M., Glover E.A., González V.L., Graf D.L., Harper E.M., Healy J., Kawauchi G.Y., Sharma P.P., Staubach S., Strong E.E., Taylor J.D., Tëmkin I., Zardus J.D., Clark S., Guzmán A., McIntyre E., Sharp P. & Giribet G. (2014) - Investigating the Bivalve Tree of Life - An exemplar-based approach combining molecular and novel morphological characters. Invertebrate Systematics, 28: 32-115.

Boehm G. (1884) - Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Grauen Kalke in Venetien. Zeitschrift der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, 36: 737-782.

Boehm G. (1892) - Lithiotis problematica Gümbel. Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Freiberg und Baden, 6: 65-80.

Bosellini A. & Broglio Loriga C. (1971) - I ‘Calcari Grigi’ di Rotzo (Giurassico inferiore, Altopiano di Asiago) e loro inquadramento nella paleogeografia e nella evoluzione tettonico-sedimentaria delle Prealpi venete. Annali dell’Università di Ferrara, Sezione Scienze della Terra, 5: 1-61.

Bosellini A. (1972) - Paleoecologia dei Calcari a “Lithiotis” (Giurassico inferiore, Prealpi Venete). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 78: 49-56.

Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2010) - Nomenclator of Bivalve Families; with a classification of bivalve families by R. Bieler J. G. Carter and E. V. Coan. Malacologia, 52(2): 1-184.

Brame H.-M. R., Martindale R.C., Ettinger N.P., Debeljak I., Vasseurc R., Lathuilièrec B., Kabiri L. & Bodin, S. (2019) - Stratigraphic distribution and paleoecological significance of Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian-Toarcian) lithiotid-coral reefal deposits from the Central High Atlas of Morocco. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 514: 813-837.

Broglio Loriga C. & Neri C. (1976) - Aspetti paleobiologici e paleogeografici della facies a ‘‘Lithiotis’’ (Giurese inf.). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 82: 651-706.

Broglio Loriga C. & Posenato R. (1996) - Adaptive strategies of Lower Jurassic and Eocene multivincular bivalves. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, Spec. Vol. 3: 45-61.

Buser S. & Debeljak I. (1995) - Lower Jurassic beds with bivalves in south Slovenia. Geologija, 37, 38: 23-62.

Carter J.C. (1990) - Chapter 10. Evolutionary significance of shell microstructure in the Palaeotaxodonta, Pteriomorphia and Isofilibranchia (Bivalvia: Mollusca). Chapters 11-16. Shell microstructural data for the Bivalvia. In: Carter J.C. (Ed.) - Skeletal Biomineralization: Pattern, Process and Evolutionary Trends, 1: 135-411, Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Carter J.C., Harries, P.J. Malchus, N. Sartori A.F., Anderson L.C., Bieler R., Bogan A. E., Coan E.V., Cope J.C.W., Cragg S.M., Garcia-March J.R., Hylleberg J., Kelley P., Kleemann K., Kriz J., McRoberts C., Mikkelsen P.M., Pojeta Jr.J., Temkin I., Yancey T. & Zieritz A. (2012) - Part N, revised, volume 1, chapter 31: Illustrated glossary of the Bivalvia. Treatise Online 48: 1-209. The University of Kansas, Paleontological Institute.

Carter J., Altaba C. R., Anderson L. C., et al. (2011) - A synoptical classification of the Bivalvia (Mollusca). Paleontological Contributions, 4: 1-47.

Chinzei K. (1982) - Morphological and structural adaptations to soft substrates in the Early Jurassic monomyarians Lithiotis and Cochlearites. Lethaia, 15: 179-197.

Clari P. (1975) - Caratteristiche sedimentologiche e paleontologiche di alcune sezioni dei Calcari Grigi del Veneto. Memorie degli Istituti di Geologia e Mineralogia dell'Università di Padova, 31: 1-63.

Cox L. R. (1940) - The Jurassic lamellibranch of Kuchh (Cutch). Palaeontologia Indica, 9(3): 1- 157.

Cox L.R. (1969) - Family Isognomonidae Woodring, 1925. In: Moore R.C. (Ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part N. Volume 1, Mollusca 6, Bivalvia: N321-N326. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press.

Cox L.R. (1971) - ? Family Lithiotidae Reis, 1903. In: Moore R.C. (Ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate paleontology. Part N. Volume 3, Mollusca 6, Bivalvia: N1199-N1200. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas Press.

Damborenea S.E. (1987) - Early Jurassic Bivalvia of Argentina. Part 2: superfamilies Pteriacea, Buchiacea and part of Pectinacea. Palaeontographica Abt. A, 199: 113-216.

Dames W. (1891) - Über Perna Taramellii G. Böhm aus den "Calcare griggi" Ober-Italiens. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 43(3): 756.

De Castro P. (1962) - Il Giura-Lias dei Monti Lattari e dei rilievi ad ovest della Valle dell’Irno e della Piana di Montorno. Bollettino della Società Naturalisti in Napoli, 71: 1-34.

De Zigno A. (1870) - Descrizione di una nuova specie di Gervillia trovata nei terreni giurassici dei Sette Comuni. Memorie Regio Istituto Veneto di Scienze Lettere e Arti, 15: 23-26.

Dubar G. (1948) - Le Faune domérienne du Jebel Bou-Dahar près de Béni-Tajjite. Note et Mémoire Géologique du Maroc, 68: 9-248.

Férussac A.E.J.D’A. (1821–1822) - Tableaux systématiques des animaux mollusques classés en familles naturelles, dans lesquels on a établi la concordance de tous les systèmes; suivis d’un prodrome général pour tous les mollusques terrestres ou fluviatiles, vivants ou fossils. Première Partie, Tableaux Systématiques Généraux. Arthus Bertrand, Paris & J. B. Sowerby, London, 110 pp.

Forbes E. (1846) - Descriptions of Secondary fossil shells from South America. In: Darwin C. (Ed.) - Geological Observations on South America, 265-268. Smith, Elder & Co., London.

Franceschi M., Dal Corso J., Posenato R., Roghi G., Masetti D. & Jenkyns H.C. (2014) - Early Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) C-isotope perturbation and the diffusion of the Lithiotis Fauna: insights from the western Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410: 255-263.

Fraser N.M., Bottjer J.D. & Fischer A.D. (2004) - Dissecting “Lithiotis” Bivalves: Implications for the Early Jurassic Reef Eclipse. Palaios, 19: 51-67.

Geyer O.F. (1977) - Die “Lithiotis-Kalke” im Bereich der unterjurassischen Tethys. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 153: 304-340.

Goldfuss A. (1836, 1833–1841) - Petrefacta Germaniae tam ea, quae in Museo Universitatis Regiae Borussicae Fidericiae Wilhelmiae Rhenanae Servantur quam alia Quaecunquae in Museis Hoenighusiano Muensteriano Aliisque Extant, Iconibus et Descriptionibus Illustrata. Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der Petrefacten Deutschlands und der Angrenzender Länder unter Mitwirkung des Herrn Grafen Georg zu Münster. Arnz & Co., Dusseldorf. Zweiter Theil [Bivalvia], part 1, pp. 1-68, with Atlas, pl. 72-96 [1833]; part 2, pp. 69-140, with Atlas. pl. 97-121 [1835]; part 3, pp. 141-224, with Atlas, pl. 122-146 [1837]; part 4, pp. 225-312, with Atlas, pl. 147-165 [1841].

Gray J. E. (1847) - A list of the genera of Recent Mollusca, their synonyma and types. Zoological Society of London, Proceedings, 15: 129-219.

Gray J. E. (1854) - A revision of the arrangement of the families of bivalve shells (Conchifera). The Annals & Magazine of Natural History, s. 2, 13: 408-418.

Grobben K. (1894) - Zur Kenntnis der Morphologie, der Verwandtschaftsverhäaltnisse und des Systems der Mollusken. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, 103: 61-86.

Gümbel C.W. (1871) - Die sogenannten Nulliporen (Lithothamnium und Dactylopora) und ihre Betheiligung an der Zusammensetzung der Kalkgesteine. 1. Die Nulliporen des Pflanzenreichs (Lithothamnium). Anhang, Lithiotis problematica. Abhandlungen der bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Kl. 2, Münich, 38-41.

Hillebrandt A. (1981) - Kontinentalverschiebung und die palaozoogeographischen Beziehungen des sudamerikanischen Lias. Geologische Rundschau, 70: 570-582.

Ichikawa K. (1958) - Zur Taxionomie und Phylogenie der triadischen “Pteriidae” (Lamellibranch.). Palaeontographica Abt. A, 111 (5-6): 131-212.

Jaitly A.K., Fürsich F.T. & Heinze M. (1995) - Contribution to the Jurassic of Kachchh, western India. IV. The bivalve fauna. Part I. Suclasses Palaeotaxodonta, Pteriomorphia, and Isofilibranchia. Beringeria, 16: 147-257.

Kidwell S.M. & Jablonski D. (1983) - Taphonomic feedback: ecological consequences of shell accumulation. In: Tevesz M.J.S. & McCall P.L. (Eds.), Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities, New York, Plenum Press, 195-248.

King W. (1850) - A monograph of the Permian fossils of England. Palaeontographical Society Monograph, i–xxxviii +258 pp.

Krumbeck L. (1923) - Zur Kenntniss des Juras der Insel Timor, sowie des Aucellen-Horizontes von Seran und Buru. Paläontologie von Timor, 20(12): 1-120.

Leinfelder R., Schmid D.U., Nose M. & Werner W. (2002) - Jurassic reef patterns - the expression of a changing globe. In: Kiessling W., Flügel E. & Golonka, J. (Eds.) - Phanerozoic Reef Patterns, SEPM Special Publication, 72: 465-520.

Linnaeus C. (1758 in 1758–1759) - Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus differentiis, synonymis, locis, 1, Tenth edition. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm, 824 pp.

Lupher R.L. & Packard E.L. (1929) - The Jurassic and Cretaceous rudists of Oregon. University of Oregon Publications (Geological series), 1(3): 203-212.

Masetti D., Figus B., Jenkyns H.C., Barattolo F., Mattioli E. & Posenato R. (2017) - Carbon-isotope anomalies and demise of carbonate platforms in the Sinemurian (Early Jurassic) of the Tethyan region: evidence from the Southern Alps (Northern Italy). Geological Magazine, 154(3): 625-650.

Nauss A.L. & Smith P.L. (1988) - Lithiotis (Bivalvia) bioherms in the Lower Jurassic of east-central Oregon, U.S.A. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 65: 253-268.

Negri A. (1891) - Sopra alcuni fossili raccolti nei calcari grigi dei Sette Comuni. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, 10(2): 309-331.

Oppenheim P. (1900) - Palaeontologische Miscellaneen. III. I. Ueber eine riesige Perna (Pachyperna n. sbg. laverdana n. sp.) aus dem Alttertiär Venetiens und die übrigen Perniden des Gebietes. 2. Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Oligocan und seiner Fauna in der venetianischen Voralpen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 52: 237-326.

Posenato R. (1995) - Palaeobiology and taxonomy of Pachyperna laverdana Oppenheim, an Eocene bivalve of Mesozoic heritage. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 69(1/2): 31-53.

Posenato R. & Masetti, D. (2012) - Environmental control and dynamics of Lower Jurassic bivalve build-ups in the Trento Platform (Southern Alps, Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 361-362: 1-13.

Posenato R., Crippa G., de Winter N.J., Frijia G. & Kaskes P. (2022) - Microstructures and sclerochronology of exquisitely preserved Lower Jurassic lithiotid bivalves: paleobiological and paleoclimatic significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 602: 111162.

Posenato R., Bassi D. & Nebelsick J.H. (2013) - Opisoma excavatum Böhm, a Lower Jurassic photosymbiontic alatoform chambered bivalves. Lethaia, 46: 424-437.

Posenato R., Bassi D., Trecalli A. & Parente M. (2018) - Taphonomy and evolution of Lower Jurassic lithiotid bivalve accumulations in the Apennine Carbonate Platform (southern Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 489(1): 261-271.

Reis O. (1903) - Über Lithiotiden. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt, 17(6): 1-44.

Reis O. (1923) - Nachträge zur Kenntniss der Gestaltung und Stellung der Lithiotiden. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 73: 277-292.

Ros-Franch S., Márquez-Aliaga A. & Damborenea S.E. (2014) - Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record. Paleontological contributions, 8: 1-217.

Savazzi E. (1996) - Preserved ligament in the Jurassic bivalve Lithiotis: adaptive and evolutionary significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 120: 281-289.

Seilacher A. (1984) - Constructional morphology of bivalves: evolutionary pathways in primary versus secondary soft dwellers. Palaeontology, 27: 207-237.

Stanley S.M. (1972) - Functional morphology and evolution of byssally attached bivalve mollusks. Journal of Paleontology, 46 (2): 165-212.

Tausch L. (1890) - Zur Kenntnis der Fauna der “Grauen Kalke”. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 15 (2): 1-40.

Taylor J.D., Kennedy W.J. & Hall A.D. (1969) - The shell structure and mineralogy of the Bivalvia. Introduction, Nuculacea-Trigonacea. Bulletin British Museum of Natural History, Zoological Suppl. 3: 1-125.

Tëmkin I. & Pojeta J. (2010) - Cassiavellia galtarae, new species, new genus: a new Permian bivalve and its significance for pterioidean systematics. Journal of Paleontology, 84(6): 1152-1176.

Woodring W.P. (1925) - Miocene Mollusca from Bowden Jamaica. Pelecypods and scaphopods: Carnegie Institute Washington, Publications 366: 1-564.

Yonge C.M. (1968) - Form and habit in species of Malleus (Including the "Hammer Oysters") with comparative observations on Isognomon isognomon. Biological Bulletin, 135(2): 378-405.

Downloads

Published

2023-09-13

Issue

Section

Articles
Received 2023-06-13
Accepted 2023-09-07
Published 2023-09-13