• PIETRO CALZONI Dipartimento di Geoscienze - Università degli studi di Padova https://orcid.org/0009-0008-1346-5006
  • JACOPO AMALFITANO Dipartimento di Geoscienze - Università degli Studi di Padova https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4280-304X
  • LUCA GIUSBERTI Dipartimento di Geoscienze - Università degli Studi di Padova https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4401-5410
  • GIUSEPPE MARRAMÀ Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra - Università degli Studi di Torino
  • GIORGIO CARNEVALE Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra - Università degli Studi di Torino




Rhamphosus, Teleostei, taxonomy, Dactylopteroidei, Ypresian


The Rhamphosidae is an extinct family of syngnathiform fishes from the lower Eocene deposits of Europe, primarily known from specimens derived from the Ypresian Konservat-Lagerstätte of Bolca (Verona province, Italy). A descriptive analysis of 28 specimens of Rhamphosus from Bolca revealed the existence of six species, showing a greater taxonomic diversity compared to the previous scenario of only two species (the type species Rhamphosus rastrum and Rhamphosus biserratus). Four new species are established herein: Rhamphosus bloti n. sp., characterized by a peculiar and unique rostrum with a discoid shape; Rhamphosus brevirostris n. sp., which exhibits a moderately large size associated with a relatively short rostrum; Rhamphosus longispinatus n. sp., characterized by having the longest dorsal-fin spine and rostrum of all the Rhamphosus species; Rhamphosus tubulirostris n. sp., which shows a peculiar slim rostrum, long-based dorsal and anal fins, and a unique squamation characterized by the presence of numerous bucklers. The species from Bolca are also compared to the only other known Rhamphosus species, Rhamphosus rosenkrantzi, from the Fur Formation, Denmark. A number of morphological features support the assignment of the Rhamphosidae to the syngnathiform clade Dactylopteroidei, together with the extant families Dactylopteridae and Pegasidae, representing the sister group to the Pegasidae.


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Received 2023-07-21
Accepted 2023-09-11
Published 2023-10-03