• BOTOND LÁZÁR Department of Geology, Babeş-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street, 400084, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Center for Integrated Geological Studies, Babeş-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street, 400084, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
  • MOSTAFA FALAHATGAR Damghan University, School of Earth Sciences, 36716-41167 Damghan, Iran.
  • MEHDI SARFI Damghan University, School of Earth Sciences, 36716-41167 Damghan, Iran.
  • MĂDĂLINA-ELENA KALLANXHI Albanian Geological Survey, Rr. Myslym Keta, Tiranë, Albania.
  • RAMONA BĂLC Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University, 30 Fântânele Street, 400084, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, 42 Treboniu Laurian Street, 400271 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
  • LÓRÁND SILYE Center for Integrated Geological Studies, Babeş-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu Street, 400084, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.



Benthic foraminifera; calcareous nannofossils; Burdigalian; paleoecology; paleogeography


Lower Miocene sediments from a previously not investigated outcrop of the Qom Formation (Central Iranian Basin) were studied for their foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil content. The studied stratigraphic record is assigned to the upper part of calcareous nannofossil NN2 Zone/CN1c Subzone and to the benthic foraminiferal Borelis melo melo Zone of Burdigalian age. The diversity indices, benthic foraminiferal morphogroups, and quantitative analyses of assemblages (principal component and cluster analysis) suggest an overall shallow-marine depositional environment. This interpretation is well constrained based on the dominance of the B1 benthic foraminifera morphotype with biconvex, trochospiral calcareous test, and epifaunal habitat. The identified six cluster groups of benthic foraminiferal assemblages are confirmed by the principal component analysis too, and their distribution along the studied section argue for dynamic changes of the environment. This is well exemplified by a more or less constant shallowing, then deepening trend of the environment as revealed by the shifting from the high diversity, shallow-shelf assemblages of Cluster 5 and 6 toward the low diversity, near-shore Ammonia tepida and Porosononion subgranosus assemblage (Cluster 1), and back.


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Received 2022-09-08
Accepted 2023-09-11
Published 2023-10-16